Reference Work Entry

Encyclopedia of Social Network Analysis and Mining

pp 1499-1501

Date:

Reasoning

  • Cong WangAffiliated withDepartment of Computer Science and Engineering, Wright State University
  • , Pascal HitzlerAffiliated withDepartment of Computer Science and Engineering, Wright State University

Glossary

First-order Logic

A formal logic system in mathematics distinguished from propositional logic by its use of quantified variables

Deductive Reasoning

The process of reasoning from one or more general statements (premises) to reach a logic conclusion

Tableaux

A proof procedure for formulas of first-order logic based on tree expansion

Resolution

A proof procedure for formulas of first-order logic based on a set of inference rules for clauses

Definition

When considering logical reasoning, it is often divided into three basic paradigms: deductive, inductive, and abductive reasoning. Deductive reasoning concerns what follows necessarily from the given premises (if α, then β) in a top-down approach, while inductive reasoning, the opposite of deductive reasoning, tries to derive a reliable generalization from observations in a bottom-up approach. Abductive reasoning is seeking the explanation for given rules and conclusions (if αβ and β, then perhaps α.) For each of them, there are many vari ...

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