Encyclopedia of Social Network Analysis and Mining

2014 Edition
| Editors: Reda Alhajj, Jon Rokne


  • Cong Wang
  • Pascal Hitzler
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-6170-8_115


First-order Logic

A formal logic system in mathematics distinguished from propositional logic by its use of quantified variables

Deductive Reasoning

The process of reasoning from one or more general statements (premises) to reach a logic conclusion


A proof procedure for formulas of first-order logic based on tree expansion


A proof procedure for formulas of first-order logic based on a set of inference rules for clauses


When considering logical reasoning, it is often divided into three basic paradigms: deductive, inductive, and abductive reasoning. Deductive reasoning concerns what follows necessarily from the given premises (if α, then β) in a top-down approach, while inductive reasoning, the opposite of deductive reasoning, tries to derive a reliable generalization from observations in a bottom-up approach. Abductive reasoning is seeking the explanation for given rules and conclusions (if αβ and β, then perhaps α.) For each of them, there...

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This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under award 1017225 “III: Small: TROn—Tractable Reasoning with Ontologies.”


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Recommended Reading

  1. Gabbay D, Hogger C, Robinson, J (1994) Handbook of logic in artificial intelligence and logic programming. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cong Wang
    • 1
  • Pascal Hitzler
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Wright State UniversityDaytonUSA