Reasoning
Glossary
 Firstorder Logic

A formal logic system in mathematics distinguished from propositional logic by its use of quantified variables
 Deductive Reasoning

The process of reasoning from one or more general statements (premises) to reach a logic conclusion
 Tableaux

A proof procedure for formulas of firstorder logic based on tree expansion
 Resolution

A proof procedure for formulas of firstorder logic based on a set of inference rules for clauses
Definition
When considering logical reasoning, it is often divided into three basic paradigms: deductive, inductive, and abductive reasoning. Deductive reasoning concerns what follows necessarily from the given premises (if α, then β) in a topdown approach, while inductive reasoning, the opposite of deductive reasoning, tries to derive a reliable generalization from observations in a bottomup approach. Abductive reasoning is seeking the explanation for given rules and conclusions (if α → β and β, then perhaps α.) For each of them, there...
Notes
Acknowledgment
This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under award 1017225 “III: Small: TROn—Tractable Reasoning with Ontologies.”
References
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Recommended Reading
 Gabbay D, Hogger C, Robinson, J (1994) Handbook of logic in artificial intelligence and logic programming. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar