Encyclopedia of Social Network Analysis and Mining

2014 Edition
| Editors: Reda Alhajj, Jon Rokne


  • Philipp Singer
  • Thomas Niebler
  • Andreas Hotho
  • Markus Strohmaier
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-6170-8_110




Any kind of Web content, e.g., documents, hyperlinks, images, or videos, which is uniquely addressable


Arbitrary text label associated with a resource

  • Process of annotating resources with tags by users

  • A single assignment of one tag to a specific resource by a single user

  • Pragmatics of tagging The way how users tag, e.g., in a more descriptive or categorizing manner

  • Tagging semantics The meaning of tags, often dependent on the tag context


A subset of a folksonomy, containing all tag assignments from a specific user to all her resources

Tagging System

Software system that uses tagging for indexing, establishing a folksonomy

Semantic Web

Concept for the World Wide Web to enable machine processing of information generated by and for humans; the goal is the “Web of Data”

Gold Standard

Highly reliable work, often manually generated. Used for...

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  1. Cattuto C, Schmitz C, Baldassarri A, Servedio VDP, Loreto V, Hotho A, Grahl M, Stumme G (2007) Network properties of folksonomies. AI Commun 20(4):245–262. http://www.kde.cs.uni-kassel.de/hotho/pub/2007/aicomm_2007_folksonomy_clustering.pdf
  2. Cattuto C, Benz D, Hotho A, Stumme G (2008) Semantic grounding of tag relatedness in social bookmarking systems. In: Sheth AP, Staab S, Dean M, Paolucci M, Maynard D, Finin TW, Thirunarayan K (eds) The semantic web – ISWC 2008, proceedings of the international semantic web conference 2008, Karlsruhe. Lecture notes in artificial intelligence, vol 5318. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 615–631. http://www.kde.cs.uni-kassel.de/pub/pdf/cattuto2008semantica.pdf
  3. Golder S, Huberman BA (2005) The structure of collaborative tagging systems. http://arxiv.org/abs/cs.DL/0508082
  4. Helic D, Strohmaier M (2011) Building directories for social tagging systems. In: Proceedings of the 20th ACM international conference on information and knowledge management, CIKM '11, Glasgow. ACM, New York, pp 525–534. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2063576.2063655
  5. Hotho A, Jäschke R, Schmitz C, Stumme G (2006) Information retrieval in folksonomies: Search and ranking. In: Sure Y, Domingue J (eds) The semantic web: research and applications. Lecture notes in computer science, vol 4011, Budva. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 411–426. http://www.kde.cs.uni-kassel.de/pub/pdf/hotho2006information.pdf
  6. Jäschke R, Marinho L, Hotho A, Schmidt-Thieme L, Stumme G (2007) Tag recommendations in folksonomies. Knowledge discovery in databases: PKDD 2007, Warsaw, pp 506–514 http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1421806
  7. Koivunen M (2005) Annotea and semantic web supported collaboration. In: Invited talk at workshop on user aspects of the semantic web (User-SWeb) at European semantic web conference, pp 5–16 http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-137/01_koivunen_final.pdf
  8. Krause B, Schmitz C, Hotho A, Stumme G (2008) The anti-social tagger – detecting spam in social bookmarking systems. In: AIRWeb '08: proceedings of the 4th international workshop on adversarial information retrieval on the web, Beijing. ACM, New York, pp 61–68. http://airweb.cse.lehigh.edu/2008/submissions/krause_2008_anti_social_tagger.pdf
  9. Smith G (2007) Tagging: people-powered metadata for the social web, 1st edn. New Riders Publishing, Thousand OaksGoogle Scholar
  10. Steels L (1998) The origins of ontologies and communication conventions in multi-agent systems. Auton Agents Multi-Agent Syst 1(2):169–194. http://www.isrl.uiuc.edu/amag/langev/paper/steels98theOrigins.html
  11. Strohmaier M, Helic D, Benz D, Körner C, Kern R (2012) Evaluation of folksonomy induction algorithms. Trans Intell Syst Technol. http://tist.acm.org/index.html; http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2337559
  12. Vander Wal T (2005) Folksonomy definition and wikipedia. http://vanderwal.net/random/entrysel.php?blog=1750

Recommended Reading

  1. Halpin H, Robu V, Shepherd H (2007) The complex dynamics of collaborative tagging. In: Proceedings of the 16th international conference on world wide web, WWW '07, Banff. ACM, New York, pp 211–220. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1242572.1242602
  2. Helic D, Körner C, Granitzer M, Strohmaier M, Trattner C (2012) Navigational efficiency of broad vs. narrow folksonomies. In: Munson EV, Strohmaier M (eds) HT, Milwaukee. ACM. In: Proceedings of the 23rd ACM conference on Hypertext and social media, pp 63–72. http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/conf/ht/ht2012.html#HelicKGST12; http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2310008
  3. Staab S, Santini S, Nack F, Steels L, Maedche A (2002) Emergent semantics. Intell Syst, IEEE [see also IEEE Expert] 17(1):78–86. http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/5254.988491
  4. Trattner C, Körner C, Helic D (2011) Enhancing the navigability of social tagging systems with tag taxonomies. In: Proceedings of the 11th international conference on knowledge management and knowledge technologies, I-Know'11, Graz. ACM, New York, pp 18:1–18:8. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2024288.2024310

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Philipp Singer
    • 1
  • Thomas Niebler
    • 2
  • Andreas Hotho
    • 2
  • Markus Strohmaier
    • 3
  1. 1.Knowledge Technologies Institute, Graz University of TechnologyGrazAustria
  2. 2.Data Mining and Information Retrieval Group, University of WuerzburgWuerzburgGermany
  3. 3.Computational Social Science Group, GESIS - Leibniz Institute for the Social SciencesCologneGermany