Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-5583-7_548


Apartheid was the political system of racial segregation that was practiced in South Africa from 1948 until 1994. It was not only an institutionalized form of racism but also a legalized system of white supremacy and white-minority rule that was completely entrenched within the country’s judicial, legislative, and parliamentary processes. While being implemented by successive white National Party governments during this period, many of these laws were relaxed and/or repealed by the early 1990s, due to decades of national and international anti-apartheid resistances and the ongoing political negotiations during South Africa’s transition to a fully enfranchised democracy. However, the first democratic election in 1994 is widely accepted as the formal demise of apartheid as a political system in South Africa, as it represents the first time a democratic electoral process was held in the country in which all of its citizens had the constitutional right to vote. As a political...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access


  1. Alexander, N. (1985). Sow the wind. Johannesburg, South Africa: Skotaville.Google Scholar
  2. Biko, S. (1988). I write what I like. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  3. Boonzaaier, E., & Sharp, J. (Eds.). (1988). South African keywords: The uses and abuses of political concepts. Cape Town, South Africa: David Philip.Google Scholar
  4. Callinicos, L. (1987). Working life 1886–1940. Johannesburg, South Africa: Ravan Press.Google Scholar
  5. Dubow, S. (1992). Afrikaner nationalism, apartheid and the conceptualization of ‘race’. Journal of African History, 33, 209–237.Google Scholar
  6. Duncan, N., Bowman, B., Naidoo, A., Pillay, J., & Roos, V. (Eds.). (2007). Community psychology: Analysis, context and action. Cape Town, South Africa: UCT Press.Google Scholar
  7. Foster, D., & Louw-Potgieter, J. (Eds.). (1991). Social psychology in South Africa. Johannesburg, South Africa: Lexicon Publishers.Google Scholar
  8. Frosh, S. (2011). Psychoanalysis outside the clinic: Interventions in psychosocial studies. London: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  9. Hook, D. (2006). Psychoanalysis, discursive analysis, racism and the theory of abjection. In G. Stevens, V. Franchi, & T. Swart (Eds.), A ‘race’ against time (pp. 171–201). Pretoria, South Africa: UNISA Press.Google Scholar
  10. Hook, D., Mkhize, N., Kiguwa, P., Collins, A., Burman, E., & Parker, I. (Eds.). (2004). Critical psychology. Lansdowne, South Africa: UCT Press.Google Scholar
  11. Lodge, T. (2009). Action against apartheid in South Africa, 1983–94. In A. Roberts & T. Garton Ash (Eds.), Civil resistance and power politics: The experience of non-violent action from Gandhi to the present (pp. 213–230). Oxford, USA: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Managanyi, N. C. (1973). Being-black-in-the-world. Johannesburg, South Africa: Ravan Press.Google Scholar
  13. Nicholas, L. J., & Cooper, S. (Eds.). (1990). Psychology and apartheid. Cape Town, South Africa: Vision Publications.Google Scholar
  14. Nuttall, S. (2009). Entanglement. Johannesburg, South Africa: Wits University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Slovo, J. (1989). The South African working class and the National Democratic Revolution. London: South African Communist Party.Google Scholar
  16. Stevens, G. (2007a). The international emergence and development of community psychology. In N. Duncan, B. Bowman, A. Naidoo, J. Pillay, & V. Roos (Eds.), Community psychology: Analysis, context and action (pp. 27–50). Cape Town, South Africa: UCT Press.Google Scholar
  17. Stevens, G. (2007b). A response to Green, Sonn and Matsebula’s “reviewing whiteness: Theory, research and possibilities”. South African Journal of Psychology, 37(3), 425–430.Google Scholar
  18. Stevens, G., Duncan, N., & Hook, D. (Eds.). (2013). Race, memory and the apartheid archive: Towards a transformative psychosocial praxis. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  19. Suffla, S., Stevens, G., & Seedat, M. (2001). Mirror reflections: The evolution of organised professional psychology in South Africa. In N. Duncan, A. van Niekerk, C. de la Rey, & M. Seedat (Eds.), ‘Race’, racism, knowledge production and psychology in South Africa (pp. 27–36). New York: Nova Science Publishers.Google Scholar
  20. Thompson, L. (2001). A history of South Africa. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Wolpe, H. (1988). Race, class and the apartheid state. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Organisation for African Unity.Google Scholar

Online Resources

  1. The Apartheid Museum (www.apartheidmuseum.org)
  2. The Apartheid Archive Project (http://www.apartheidarchive.org)
  3. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission (http://www.justice.gov.za/trc/)
  4. Visual History Explorer (http://www.visualhistoryexplorer.com/)
  5. South African Journal of Psychology (http://www.psyssa.com/Mypsyssa/myjournal.asp)

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of the WitwatersrandBraamfontein 2000South Africa