Advertisement

Autism Spectrum Disorders and Aluminum Vaccine Adjuvants

  • Lucija Tomljenovic
  • Russell L. Blaylock
  • Christopher A. Shaw

Abstract

Impaired brain function, excessive inflammation, and autoimmune manifestations are common in autism. Aluminum (Al), the most commonly used vaccine adjuvant, is a demonstrated neurotoxin and a strong immune stimulator. Hence, adjuvant Al has the necessary properties to induce neuroimmune disorders. Because peripheral immune stimuli in the postnatal period can compromise brain development and cause permanent neurological impairments, the possibility that such outcomes could also occur with administration of Al vaccine adjuvants needs to be considered. In regard to the risk of adjuvant toxicity in children, the following should be noted: (i) children should not be viewed as “small adults” as their unique physiology makes them more vulnerable to toxic insults; (ii) in adult humans Al adjuvants can cause a variety of serious autoimmune and inflammatory conditions including those affecting the brain, yet children are routinely exposed to much higher amounts of Al from vaccines than adults; (iii) compelling evidence has underscored the tight connection between the development of the immune system and that of the brain. Thus, it appears plausible that disruptions of critical events in immune development may also play a role in the establishment of neurobehavioral disorders; (iv) the same immune system components that play key roles in brain development appear to be targeted for impairment by Al adjuvants. In summary, research data suggests that vaccines containing Al may be a contributing etiological factor in the increasing incidence of autism.

Keywords

Autism Spectrum Disorder Blood Brain Barrier Major Histocompatibility Complex Class Immune Stimulation Central Nervous System Function 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Agarwal SK, Ayyash L, Gourley CS, et al. Evaluation of the developmental neuroendocrine and reproductive toxicology of aluminium. Food Chem Toxicol. 1996;34(1):49–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Agmon-Levin N, Paz Z, Israeli E, et al. Vaccines and autoimmunity. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2009;5(11):648–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Agmon-Levin N, Hughes G, Shoenfeld Y. The spectrum of ASIA: ‘Autoimmune (auto-inflammatory) Syndrome Induced by Adjuvants’. Lupus. 2012;21(2):118–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Authier FJ, Cherin P, Creange A, et al. Central nervous system disease in patients with macrophagic myofasciitis. Brain. 2001;124(Pt 5):974–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Avishai-Eliner S, Brunson KL, Sandman CA, et al. Stressed-out, or in (utero)? Trends Neurosci. 2002;25(10):518–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Aydin H, Ozgul E, Agildere AM. Acute necrotizing encephalopathy secondary to diphtheria, tetanus toxoid and whole-cell pertussis vaccination: diffusion-weighted imaging and proton MR spectroscopy findings. Pediatr Radiol. 2010;40:1281–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Banks WA, Kastin AJ. Aluminum-induced neurotoxicity: alterations in membrane function at the blood-brain barrier. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 1989;13(1):47–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Barrientos RM, Frank MG, Watkins LR, et al. Aging-related changes in neuroimmune-endocrine function: implications for hippocampal-dependent cognition. Horm Behav. 2012. doi:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2012.02.010.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Belmonte MK, Allen G, Beckel-Mitchener A, et al. Autism and abnormal development of brain connectivity. J Neurosci. 2004;24(42):9228–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Berin MC, Mayer L. Immunophysiology of experimental food allergy. Mucosal Immunol. 2009;2(1):24–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Besedovsky HO, Rey A. Brain cytokines as integrators of the immune–neuroendocrine network. In: Lajtha A, Besedovsky HO, Galoyan A, editors. Handbook of neurochemistry and molecular neurobiology. 3rd ed. Springer; 2008. p. 1-17.Google Scholar
  12. Bilbo SD, Biedenkapp JC, Der-Avakian A, et al. Neonatal infection-induced memory impairment after lipopolysaccharide in adulthood is prevented via caspase-1 inhibition. J Neurosci. 2005;25(35):8000–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Blaylock RL. Aluminum induced immunoexcitotoxicity in neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Curr Inorg Chem. 2012;2(1):46–53.Google Scholar
  14. Blaylock RL, Maroon J. Immunoexcitotoxicity as a central mechanism in chronic traumatic encephalopathy-a unifying hypothesis. Surg Neurol Int. 2011;2:107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Blaylock RL, Strunecka A. Immune-glutamatergic dysfunction as a central mechanism of the autism spectrum disorders. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(2):157–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Boisse L, Mouihate A, Ellis S, et al. Long-term alterations in neuroimmune responses after neonatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide. J Neurosci. 2004;24(21):4928–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Buller KM, Day TA. Systemic administration of interleukin-1beta activates select population of central amygdala afferents. J Comp Neurol. 2002;452(3):288–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Carvalho JF, Shoenfeld Y. Status epilepticus and lymphocytic pneumonitis following hepatitis B vaccination. Eur J Intern Med. 2008;19:383–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Cohen AD, Shoenfeld Y. Vaccine-induced autoimmunity. J Autoimmun. 1996;9(6):699–703.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Couette M, Boisse MF, Maison P, et al. Long-term persistence of vaccine-derived aluminum hydroxide is associated with chronic cognitive dysfunction. J Inorg Biochem. 2009;103(11):1571–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Dantzer R, Kelley KW. Twenty years of research on cytokine-induced sickness behavior. Brain Behav Immun. 2007;21(2):153–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Dietert RR, Dietert JM. Potential for early-life immune insult including developmental immunotoxicity in autism and autism spectrum disorders: focus on critical windows of immune vulnerability. J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 2008;11(8):660–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Dinarello CA. Cytokines as endogenous pyrogens. J Infect Dis. 1999;179 (Suppl 2):S294–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Dorea JG, Marques RC. Infants’ exposure to aluminum from vaccines and breast milk during the first 6 months. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2010;20(7):598–601.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Du X, Fleiss B, Li H, et al. Systemic stimulation of TLR2 impairs neonatal mouse brain development. PLoS One. 2011;6(5):e19583.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Dunn AJ. Effects of cytokines and infections on brain neurochemistry. Clin Neurosci Res. 2006;6(1–2):52–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Eisenbarth SC, Colegio OR, O’Connor W, et al. Crucial role for the Nalp3 inflammasome in the immunostimulatory properties of aluminium adjuvants. Nature. 2008;453(7198):1122–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Eroglu C, Barres BA. Regulation of synaptic connectivity by glia. Nature. 2010;468(7321):223–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Eskandari F, Webster JI, Sternberg EM. Neural immune pathways and their connection to inflammatory diseases. Arthritis Res Ther. 2003;5(6):251–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Exley C. Aluminium and medicine. In: Merce ALR, Felcman J, Recio MAL, editors. Molecular and supramolecular bioinorganic chemistry: applications in medical sciences. New York: Nova Science Pub Inc; 2009. p. 45–68.Google Scholar
  31. Exley C, Swarbrick L, Gherardi RK, et al. A role for the body burden of aluminium in vaccine-associated macrophagic myofasciitis and chronic fatigue syndrome. Med Hypotheses. 2009;72(2):135–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Exley C, Siesjo P, Eriksson H. The immunobiology of aluminium adjuvants: how do they really work? Trends Immunol. 2010;31(3):103–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Fantuzzi G, Sironi M, Delgado R, et al. Depression of liver metabolism and induction of cytokine release by diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccines: role of Bordetella pertussis cells in toxicity. Infect Immun. 1994;62(1):29–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Fombonne E. The epidemiology of autism: a review. Psychol Med. 1999;29(4):769–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Galic MA, Riazi K, Heida JG, et al. Postnatal inflammation increases seizure susceptibility in adult rats. J Neurosci. 2008;28(27):6904–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Galic MA, Spencer SJ, Mouihate A, et al. Postnatal programming of the innate immune response. Integr Comp Biol. 2009;49(3):237–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Gallagher CM, Goodman MS. Hepatitis B vaccination of male neonates and autism diagnosis, NHIS 1997–2002. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2010;73(24):1665–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Garay PA, McAllister AK. Novel roles for immune molecules in neural development: Implications for neurodevelopmental disorders. Front Synaptic Neurosci. 2010;2:136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Gerber JS, Offit PA. Vaccines and autism: a tale of shifting hypotheses. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48(4):456–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Gherardi R, Authier F. Macrophagic myofasciitis: characterization and pathophysiology. Lupus. 2012;21(2):184–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Gherardi RK, Coquet M, Cherin P, et al. Macrophagic myofasciitis lesions assess long-term persistence of vaccine-derived aluminium hydroxide in muscle. Brain. 2001;124 (Pt 9):1821–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Glenney AT, Pope CG, Waddington H, et al. XXIII – the antigenic value of toxoid precipitated by potassium alum. J Pathol Bacteriol. 1926;29:38–9.Google Scholar
  43. Gulino A, De Smaele E, Ferretti E. Glucocorticoids and neonatal brain injury: the hedgehog connection. J Clin Invest. 2009;119(2):243–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Gunnar MR, Brodersen L, Krueger K, et al. Dampening of adrenocortical responses during infancy: normative changes and individual differences. Child Dev. 1996;67(3):877–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Havik B, Le Hellard S, Rietschel M, et al. The complement control-related genes CSMD1 and CSMD2 associate to schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry. 2011;70(1):35–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Herbert MR, Ziegler DA, Deutsch CK, et al. Dissociations of cerebral cortex, subcortical and cerebral white matter volumes in autistic boys. Brain. 2003;126(Pt 5):1182–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Hewitson L, Lopresti BJ, Stott C, et al. Influence of pediatric vaccines on amygdala growth and opioid ligand binding in rhesus macaque infants: a pilot study. Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2010;70(2):147–64.Google Scholar
  48. Ibi D, Nagai T, Kitahara Y, et al. Neonatal polyI:C treatment in mice results in schizophrenia-like behavioral and neurochemical abnormalities in adulthood. Neurosci Res. 2009;64(3):297–305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Israeli E, Agmon-Levin N, Blank M, et al. Adjuvants and autoimmunity. Lupus. 2009;18(13):1217–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Jansen LM, Gispen-de Wied CC, Van der Gaag RJ, et al. Unresponsiveness to psychosocial stress in a subgroup of autistic-like children, multiple complex developmental disorder. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2000;25(8):753–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Johnson JD, O’Connor KA, Deak T, et al. Prior stressor exposure sensitizes LPS-induced cytokine production. Brain Behav Immun. 2002;16:461–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Johnston MV. Neurotransmitters and vulnerability of the developing brain. Brain Dev. 1995;17(5):301–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Khamaisi M, Shoenfeld Y, Orbach H. Guillain-Barre syndrome following hepatitis B vaccination. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2004;22(6):767–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Khan Z, Combadiere C, Authier FJ, et al. Slow CCL2-dependent translocation of biopersistent particles from muscle to brain. BMC Med. 2013. doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-99.Google Scholar
  55. Konat GW, Lally BE, Toth AA, et al. Peripheral immune challenge with viral mimic during early postnatal period robustly enhances anxiety-like behavior in young adult rats. Metab Brain Dis. 2011;26(3):237–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Konstantinou D, Paschalis C, Maraziotis T, et al. Two episodes of leukoencephalitis associated with recombinant hepatitis B vaccination in a single patient. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;33(10):1772–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Lambert JC, Heath S, Even G, et al. Genome-wide association study identifies variants at CLU and CR1 associated with Alzheimer’s disease. Nat Genet. 2009;41(10):1094–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Lee AL, Ogle WO, Sapolsky RM. Stress and depression: possible links to neuron death in the hippocampus. Bipolar Disord. 2002;4(2):117–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Lewis M, Thomas D. Cortisol release in infants in response to inoculation. Child Dev. 1990;61(1):50–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Li H, Willingham SB, Ting JP, et al. Cutting edge: inflammasome activation by Alum and Alum’s adjuvant effect are mediated by NLRP3. J Immunol. 2008;181:17–21.Google Scholar
  61. Li X, Zheng H, Zhang Z, et al. Glia activation induced by peripheral administration of aluminum oxide nanoparticles in rat brains. Nanomedicine Nanotechnol Biol Med. 2009;5(4):473–9.Google Scholar
  62. Lujan L, Perez M, Salazar E, Alvarez N, Gimeno M, Pinczowski P, et al. Autoimmune/autoinflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA syndrome) in commercial sheep. Immunol Res. 2013.doi: 10.1007/s12026-013-8404-0.Google Scholar
  63. Marichal T, Ohata K, Bedoret D, et al. DNA released from dying host cells mediates aluminum adjuvant activity. Nat Med. 2011;17(8):996–1002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. McKee AS, Munks MW, MacLeod MK, et al. Alum induces innate immune responses through macrophage and mast cell sensors, but these sensors are not required for alum to act as an adjuvant for specific immunity. J Immunol. 2009;183(7):4403–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Melendez L, Santos D, Luna Polido L, et al. Aluminium and other metals may pose a risk to children with autism spectrum disorder: biochemical and behavioural impairments. Clin Exp Pharmacol. 2013. doi: 10.4172/2161-1459.1000120.Google Scholar
  66. Mendoza Plasencia Z, Gonzalez Lopez M, Fernandez Sanfiel ML, Muniz Montes JR. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis with tumefactive lesions after vaccination against human papillomavirus. Neurologia. 2010;25:58–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Miles JH, Takahashi TN, Bagby S, et al. Essential versus complex autism: definition of fundamental prognostic subtypes. Am J Med Genet A. 2005;135(2):171–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Mosca F, Tritto E, Muzzi A, et al. Molecular and cellular signatures of human vaccine adjuvants. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2008;105(30):10501–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Offit PA, Jew RK. Addressing parents’ concerns: do vaccines contain harmful preservatives, adjuvants, additives, or residuals? Pediatrics. 2003;112(6 Pt 1):1394–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Olney JW. New insights and new issues in developmental neurotoxicology. Neurotoxicology. 2002;23(6):659–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Orbach H, Agmon-Levin N, Zandman-Goddard G. Vaccines and autoimmune diseases of the adult. Discov Med. 2010;9(45):90–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Ortega-Hernandez OD, Kivity S, Shoenfeld Y. Olfaction, psychiatric disorders and autoimmunity: is there a common genetic association? Autoimmunity. 2009;42(1):80–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Pardo CA, Vargas DL, Zimmerman AW. Immunity, neuroglia and neuroinflammation in autism. Int Rev Psychiatry. 2005;17(6):485–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Passeri E, Villa C, Couette M, et al. Long-term follow-up of cognitive dysfunction in patients with aluminum hydroxide-induced macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF). J Inorg Biochem. 2011;105(11):1457–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Petrik MS, Wong MC, Tabata RC, et al. Aluminum adjuvant linked to gulf War illness induces motor neuron death in mice. Neuromolecular Med. 2007;9(1):83–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Polimeni MA, Richdale AL, Francis AJ. A survey of sleep problems in autism, Asperger’s disorder and typically developing children. J Intellect Disabil Res. 2005;49(Pt 4):260–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Porges SW. The vagus: A mediator of behavioral and physiologic features associated with autism. In: Bauman ML, Kemper TL, editors. The neurobiology of autism. 2nd ed. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press; 2005. p. 65–78.Google Scholar
  78. Prat A, Biernacki K, Wosik K, et al. Glial cell influence on the human blood–brain barrier. Glia. 2001;36:145–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Purcell AE, Jeon OH, Zimmerman AW, et al. Postmortem brain abnormalities of the glutamate neurotransmitter system in autism. Neurology. 2001;57(9):1618–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Quiroz-Rothe E, Ginel PJ, Pérez J, et al. Vaccine-associated acute polyneuropathy resembling Guillain-Barré syndrome in a dog. EJCAP. 2005;15(2):155–9.Google Scholar
  81. Redhead K, Quinlan GJ, Das RG, et al. Aluminium-adjuvanted vaccines transiently increase aluminium levels in murine brain tissue. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1992;70(4):278–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Rhawn J. Normal and abnormal amygdala development. In: Neuropsychiatry, neuropsychology, and clinical neuroscience. 2rd ed. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1996.Google Scholar
  83. Rose NR. Autoimmunity, infection and adjuvants. Lupus. 2010;19(4):354–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Seneff S, Davidson RM, Liu J. Empirical data confirm autism symptoms related to aluminum and acetaminophen exposure. Entropy. 2012;14:2227–53.Google Scholar
  85. Seubert A, Monaci E, Pizza M, et al. The adjuvants aluminum hydroxide and MF59 induce monocyte and granulocyte chemoattractants and enhance monocyte differentiation toward dendritic cells. J Immunol. 2008;180(8):5402–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Shaw CA, Petrik MS. Aluminum hydroxide injections lead to motor deficits and motor neuron degeneration. J Inorg Biochem. 2009;103(11):1555–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Shimmura C, Suda S, Tsuchiya KJ, et al. Alteration of plasma glutamate and glutamine levels in children with high-functioning autism. PLoS One. 2011;6(10):e25340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Shinohe A, Hashimoto K, Nakamura K, et al. Increased serum levels of glutamate in adult patients with autism. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2006;30(8):1472–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Shoenfeld Y, Agmon-Levin N. ‘ASIA’ – Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants. J Autoimmun. 2011;36(1):4–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Siegrist CA, Aspinall R. B-cell responses to vaccination at the extremes of age. Nat Rev Immunol. 2009;9(3):185–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Soumiya H, Fukumitsu H, Furukawa S. Prenatal immune challenge compromises the normal course of neurogenesis during development of the mouse cerebral cortex. J Neurosci Res. 2011;89(10):1575–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Spencer SJ, Heida JG, Pittman QJ. Early life immune challenge–effects on behavioural indices of adult rat fear and anxiety. Behav Brain Res. 2005;164(2):231–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Spencer SJ, Hyland NP, Sharkey KA, et al. Neonatal immune challenge exacerbates experimental colitis in adult rats: potential role for TNF-alpha. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007;292(1):R308–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Stevens B, Allen NJ, Vazquez LE, et al. The classical complement cascade mediates CNS synapse elimination. Cell. 2007;131(6):1164–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Theoharides TC, Zhang B. Neuro-inflammation, blood-brain barrier, seizures autism. J Neuroinflammation. 2011;8(1):168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Theoharides TC, Kempuraj D, Redwood L. Autism: an emerging ‘neuroimmune disorder’ in search of therapy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2009;10(13):2127–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Tomljenovic L. Aluminum and Alzheimer’s disease: after a century of controversy, is there a plausible link? J Alzheimers Dis. 2011;23(4):567–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Tomljenovic L, Shaw CA. Aluminum vaccine adjuvants: are they safe? Curr Med Chem. 2011a;18(17):2630–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Tomljenovic L, Shaw CA. Do aluminum vaccine adjuvants contribute to the rising prevalence of autism? J Inorg Biochem. 2011b;105(11):1489–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Tomljenovic L, Shaw CA. Mechanisms of aluminum adjuvant toxicity in pediatric populations. Lupus. 2012;21(2):223–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Tsumiyama K, Miyazaki Y, Shiozawa S. Self-organized criticality theory of autoimmunity. PLoS One. 2009;4(12):e8382.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Tuchman R, Rapin I. Epilepsy in autism. Lancet Neurol. 2002;1(6):352–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Vargas DL, Nascimbene C, Krishnan C, et al. Neuroglial activation and neuroinflammation in the brain of patients with autism. Ann Neurol. 2005;57(1):67–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Vojdani A, Campbell AW, Anyanwu E, et al. Antibodies to neuron-specific antigens in children with autism: possible cross-reaction with encephalitogenic proteins from milk, chlamydia pneumoniae and streptococcus group A. J Neuroimmunol. 2002;129(1–2):168–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. White SW, Bray BC, Ollendick TH. Examining shared and unique aspects of social anxiety disorder and autism spectrum disorder using factor analysis. J Autism Dev Disord. 2011. doi:10.1007/s10803-011-1325-7.Google Scholar
  106. Xu Y, Day TA, Buller KM. The central amygdala modulates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to systemic interleukin-1beta administration. Neuroscience. 1999;94(1):175–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Zafrir Y, Agmon-Levin N, Paz Z, et al. Autoimmunity following Hepatitis B vaccine as part of the spectrum of ‘Autoimmune (Auto-inflammatory) Syndrome induced by Adjuvants’ (ASIA): analysis of 93 cases. Lupus. 2012;21(2):146–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Zinka B, Rauch E, Buettner A, et al. Unexplained cases of sudden infant death shortly after hexavalent vaccination. Vaccine. 2006;24(31–32):5779–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lucija Tomljenovic
    • 1
  • Russell L. Blaylock
    • 2
  • Christopher A. Shaw
    • 3
  1. 1.Faculty of MedicineUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  2. 2.Theoretical Neurosciences Research, LLCBelhaven University, JacksonJacksonUSA
  3. 3.Departments of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences and Experimental Medicine, and the Graduate Program in NeuroscienceUniversity of British Columbia, Neural Dynamics Research GroupVancouverCanada

Personalised recommendations