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Axonal Transport

  • Anthony BrownEmail author
Reference work entry

Abstract

Axons are long slender cylindrical projections of neurons that enable these cells to communicate directly with other cells in the body over long distances, up to a meter or more in large animals. Remarkably, however, most axonal components originate in the nerve cell body, at one end of the axon, and must be shipped out along the axon by mechanisms of intracellular motility. In addition, signals from the axon and its environment must be conveyed back to the nerve cell body to modulate the nature and composition of the outbound traffic. The outward movement from the cell body toward the axon tip is called anterograde transport and the movement in the opposite direction, back toward the cell body, is called retrograde transport. This bidirectional transport, known collectively as axonal transport, is not fundamentally different from the pathways of macromolecular and membrane traffic found in other parts of the neuron, or indeed in any eukaryotic cell, but it is unique for the volume and scale of the traffic required to maintain these long processes.

Keywords

Axonal Transport Retrograde Transport Nerve Cell Body Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia Axon Initial Segment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

ADP

Adenosine Diphosphate

ATP

Adenosine Triphosphate

Erk

Extracellular Signal Regulated Kinase

GDP

Guanosine Diphosphate

GFP

Green Fluorescent Protein

GTP

Guanosine Triphosphate

JNK

c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase

mRNA

Messenger RNA

NGF

Nerve Growth Factor

NLS

Nuclear Localization Signal

RNA

Ribonucleic Acid

RNP

Ribonucleoprotein Particle

SCa

Slow Component a

SCb

Slow Component b

Trk

Tyrosine Receptor Kinase

ZBP

Zipcode-Binding Protein

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeuroscienceThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA

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