Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers

2014 Edition
| Editors: Thomas Hockey, Virginia Trimble, Thomas R. Williams, Katherine Bracher, Richard A. Jarrell, Jordan D. MarchéII, JoAnn Palmeri, Daniel W. E. Green

Orlov, Alexander Yakovlevich

  • Alexander A. Gurshtein
Reference work entry

BornSmolensk, Russia, 6 April 1880

DiedKyiv (Ukraine), 28 January 1954

A prolific astronomer with a broad circle of observational interests, and one of the pioneers of modern geodynamics (investigation of the Earth as a planet by means of astronomy, geodesy, and geophysics), Alexander Orlov was also a successful originator of new institutions and a key promoter of Ukrainian astronomy. From his energetic interdisciplinary activities, modern astronomy of the sovereign Ukraine came into its own. Orlov was the founder of an astronomical dynasty and became the most recognized Ukrainian astronomer. He was also head of the multi-personnel school of astronomical research.

Orlov graduated with distinction from Saint Petersburg University in 1902 and in the following years broadened his scientific background by studying at the Sorbonne (France), at Lund (Sweden) with  Carl Charlier, and at Göttingen (Germany) with Johann Wiechert. From 1905 to 1913, he worked productively at the Tartu (Estonia)...

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Selected References

  1. Fedorov, E. P. (1980). “Alexander Yakovlevich Orlov – Life, Work, Scientific Heritage.” In Geodinamika i Astrometria. Osnovaniya, metody, rezul’taty (Geodynamics and astrometry. Foundations, methods, results). Kiev: Naukova Dumka (in Russian).Google Scholar
  2. Kulikovsky, P. G. (1974). “Orlov, Aleksandr Yakovlevich.” In Dictionary of Scientific Biography, edited by Charles Coulston Gillispie. Vol. 10, pp. 231–233. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.Google Scholar
  3. Volyanskaya, M. Yu., V. G. Karetnikov, and O. E. Mandel (2004). “Alexander Yakovlevich Orlov.” In Odessa Astronomical Calendar for 2005. Odessa: Astroprint (in Russian).Google Scholar
  4. Yatskiv, Ya. S. (2004). “The Ukrainian Geodynamical School created by A. Ya. Orlov.” In Odessa Astronomical Calendar for 2005, pp. 159–163. Odessa: Astroprint (in Russian).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexander A. Gurshtein
    • 1
  1. 1.Vavilov Institute for History of Science & TechnologyRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia