Encyclopedia of Autism Spectrum Disorders

2013 Edition
| Editors: Fred R. Volkmar

Test of Playfulness (ToP)

  • Anne SnowEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1698-3_299




The Test of Playfulness (ToP) is an assessment designed for measuring the play of individuals between the ages of 6 months and 18 years (Bundy, 2010). It is composed of 29 items that are scored following an observation of the individual’s free play in both indoor and outdoor settings. It has been recommended that the ToP is most reliable when completed after play sessions that are 15 minutes in length. The ToP is completed by a trained observer. Items are scored on a 4-point Likert scale with respect to three dimensions: Extent (0 = rarely or never, 3 = almost always), Intensity (0 = not, 3 = highly), and Skillfulness (0 = unskilled, 3 = highly skilled).

Scoring the ToP utilizes a test-specific Keyform, which depicts the relative difficulty of each item plotted against the means and standard deviations for the items. Recording the item scores on this form produces a total score ranging from −7 to 7.

Historical Background

The initial version of the ToP was a...

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References and Readings

  1. Baranek, G. T., Parham, L. D., & Bodfish, J. W. (2005). Sensory and motor features in autism: Assessment and intervention. In F. R. Volkmar, R. Paul, A. Klin, & D. Cohen (Eds.), Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders (3rd ed., pp. 831–861). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  2. Bundy, A. (2010). Test of playfulness manual. Bolder, CO: Colorado State University.Google Scholar
  3. O’Brien, J. C., & Shirley, R. J. (2001). Does playfulness change over time? A preliminary look using the test of playfulness. Occupational Journal of Research, 21, 132–139.Google Scholar
  4. Skard, G., & Bundy, A. C. (2008). Test of playfulness. In L. D. Parham & L. S. Fazio (Eds.), Play in occupational therapy for children (2nd ed., pp. 71–93). St. Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Child Study Center, Autism ProgramYale UniversityNew HavenUSA