Reference Work Entry

Encyclopedia of Autism Spectrum Disorders

pp 3092-3094

Test of Playfulness (ToP)

  • Anne SnowAffiliated withChild Study Center, Autism Program, Yale University Email author 




The Test of Playfulness (ToP) is an assessment designed for measuring the play of individuals between the ages of 6 months and 18 years (Bundy, 2010). It is composed of 29 items that are scored following an observation of the individual’s free play in both indoor and outdoor settings. It has been recommended that the ToP is most reliable when completed after play sessions that are 15 minutes in length. The ToP is completed by a trained observer. Items are scored on a 4-point Likert scale with respect to three dimensions: Extent (0 = rarely or never, 3 = almost always), Intensity (0 = not, 3 = highly), and Skillfulness (0 = unskilled, 3 = highly skilled).

Scoring the ToP utilizes a test-specific Keyform, which depicts the relative difficulty of each item plotted against the means and standard deviations for the items. Recording the item scores on this form produces a total score ranging from −7 to 7.

Historical Background

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