Sex Roles and Gender Roles
- 1.1k Downloads
The terms sex roles and gender roles often are used interchangeably to denote a repertoire of emotions, attitudes, behaviors, and perceptions that are commonly associated more with one sex than with the other. Individuals are deemed to adopt a gender role self-concept, which is the amount of gender stereotypical traits and behaviors that persons use to describe themselves and to influence their dispositions. These traits reflect expectations a society holds toward men and women (see Eagly et al. 2000). The classic conceptualizations of the male gender role associates it with instrumental/agentic behaviors and traits that reflect independence, assertiveness, and dominance; the female gender role has been associated with expressive behaviors and traits that reflect sensitivity to others and communality (Bem 1974). The conceptualization also includes androgynous traits, which are mixtures of traditional male and female gender roles (Bem 1974).
The development of gender role self-concepts...
- Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
- Bem, S. L. (1981). Gender schema theory: A cognitive account for sex typing. Psychological Review, 88, 354–364.Google Scholar
- Eagly, A., Wood, W., & Diekman, A. B. (2000). Social role theory of sex differences and similarities: A current appraisal. In T. Eckes & H. M. Trautner (Eds.), The developmental social psychology of gender (pp. 123–174). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Hannover, B. (2000). Development of the self in gendered contexts. In T. Eckes & H. M. Trautner (Eds.), The developmental social psychology of gender (pp. 177–206). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Ruble, D. N., & Martin, C. L. (1998). Gender development. In W. Damon & N. Eisenberg (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology (Vol. 3, pp. 933–1016). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar