Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning

2012 Edition
| Editors: Norbert M. Seel

Carroll’s Model of School Learning

  • Norbert M. SeelEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1428-6_980

Synonyms

Definition

Carroll’s model of school learning specifies the distinctive roles of generalized abilities and task-specific aptitudes in determining the effects of instruction on learning. The degree of learning effectiveness is defined as a function of the time needed for learning and the time actually spent for learning. Both variables, in turn, are dependent on other internal and external variables, such as the learner’s general intelligence and the quality of instruction.

Theoretical Background

In the 1960s, Carroll developed a conceptual model of school learning in which the factor time plays a central role (Carroll 1963). In this model, the achievement of a student or the degree of learning effectiveness is defined as a function of the actual time needed for learning and the time actually spent for learning. The effect of both variables on the degree of learning effectiveness has been expressed in a functional equation:
$${{\text{Degree...
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References

  1. Berliner, D. (1978). Changing academic learning time: Clinical interventions in four classrooms. San Francisco: Far West Laboratory for Educational Research and Development.Google Scholar
  2. Carroll, J. B. (1963). A model for school learning. Teachers College Record, 64, 723–733.Google Scholar
  3. Harnischfeger, A., & Wiley, D. E. (1978). Conceptual issues in models of school learning. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 10(3), 215–231.Google Scholar
  4. Slavin, R. (2006). Educational psychology: Theory and practice (8th ed., pp. 277–279). Needham Heights: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  5. Squires, D., Huitt, W., & Segars, J. (1983). Effective schools and classrooms: A research-based perspective. Alexandria: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of EducationUniversity of FreiburgFreiburgGermany