Cybernetic Principles of Learning
The cybernetic principles of learning are drawn from the implications of applying to learning the insights into the behavior of living systems provided by the study of cybernetics. Cybernetics is underpinned by the notion of circularity and feedback between a system and its environment. Maturana and Varela ( 1987) say that both a living system and an environment are structurally determined and therefore, through recurrent interactions and feedback, both will change congruently according to their structure as they interact, each contributing to the creation of the world by living in it. This process they call co-ontogenic structural drift. The change that occurs through this process they call learning. Rather than knowledge being something static that is taken in from the outside by the senses and stored somewhere, it is a process of knowingthat results from...
- Ashby, R. (1957). An introduction to cybernetics. London: Chapman & Hall.Google Scholar
- Bateson, G. (1972). Steps to an ecology of mind. New York: Ballantine Books.Google Scholar
- Glanville, R. (2009). The black boox (Complexity, design, society, Vol. 12). Wien: Edition Echoraum.Google Scholar
- Maturana, H., & Varela, F. (1987). The tree of knowledge. Boston: Shambhala.Google Scholar
- Skinner, B. F. (1989). Recent issues in the analysis of behaviour. Columbus: Merrill.Google Scholar
- von Foerster, H. (1992). Ethics and second-order cybernetics. Cybernetics and Human Knowing, 1(1), 9–19.Google Scholar
- von Glasersfeld, E. (2007). Key works in radical constructivism. In M. Larochelle (Ed.). Rotterdam, Taipei: Sense. (see also von Glasersfeld on Maturana http://www.oikos.org/vonobserv.htm).
© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012