Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning

2012 Edition
| Editors: Norbert M. Seel

Twentyfirst Century Skills and Competencies

  • Charles FadelEmail author
  • Bernie Trilling
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1428-6_763

Synonyms

Definition

Twenty-first-century learning, or the twenty-first-century Skills Movement as it is commonly known (Trilling and Fadel 2009), refers to a global movement to redefine education goals and transform learning practice in response to the question, “What do students need to learn for life in our times?” – A world that is rapidly evolving from the industrial to the knowledge and innovation era.

Since this is a global topic, taxonomy matters significantly: the word “skill” may appear as “competencies” in some languages. In others, such as English, some users draw the definition as the formula “Knowledge + Skills = Competencies.” In French, there is the progression from “savoir” (knowledge) to “savoir-faire” (literally know-how; skill) to “competences” (competencies). “Knowledge” here refers to how people store their experiences within their minds as cognitive structures, and “skill” is defined as dexterity...

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References

  1. Bransford, J. D., Brown, A. L., & Cocking, R. R. (Eds.). (1999). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience and school (expanded ed.). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  2. European Union Lisbon Council on Skills and Human Capital. (2010, June 18). Skills and Human Capital. Retrieved April 18, 2011, from http://www.lisboncouncil.net/initiatives/human-capital.html
  3. Markham, T., Larmer, J., & Ravitz, J. (2003). Project based learning handbook: A guide to standards-focused project based learning for middle and high school teachers. Novato: Buck Institute of Education.Google Scholar
  4. P21 (2010, June 18). Framework for 21st century learning. Retrieved April 18, 2011, from http://p21.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=254&Itemid=119
  5. Trilling, B., & Fadel, C. (2009). 21st century skills: Learning for life in our times. San Francisco: Wiley/Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  6. US Department of Labor, Secretary’s Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS). (1992). Learning a living: A blueprint for high performance. Washington, DC: US Department of Labor.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.21st Century Learning LLCBostonUSA
  2. 2.21st-Century Learning ConsultantPalo AltoUSA