Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning

2012 Edition
| Editors: Norbert M. Seel

Extinction Learning

  • Catherine A. Hartley
  • Elizabeth A. PhelpsEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1428-6_306

Synonyms

Definition

Extinction learning refers to the gradual decrease in response to a conditioned stimulus that occurs when the stimulus is presented without reinforcement. The term “extinction” was first used by Ivan Pavlov in reference to his observation that the conditioned response to a cue that predicted food delivery decreased and eventually disappeared when food no longer followed the cue. In Pavlovian fear conditioning, a previously neutral stimulus comes to elicit a fear response through pairing with an aversive reinforcer, such as an electric shock or a loud noise. During extinction, a new association with the stimulus is learned that inhibits the expression of the original fear memory. Extinction learning serves as the foundation of exposure therapy, which is commonly used to treat pathological fear.

Theoretical Background

Russian scientist Ivan Pavlov first documented the phenomenon of extinction in his seminal classical conditioning experiments...

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References

  1. Anderson, K. C., & Insel, T. R. (2006). The promise of extinction research for the prevention and treatment of anxiety disorders. Biological Psychiatry, 60, 319–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bouton, M. E. (2004). Context and behavioral processes in extinction. Learning & Memory, 11, 485–494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Pavlov, I. P. (1927). Conditioned reflexes: An investigation of the physiological activity of the cerebral cortex (trans: Anrep, G. V.). London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Quirk, G. J., & Mueller, D. (2008). Neural mechanisms of extinction learning and retrieval. Neuropsychopharmacology, 33, 56–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyNew York UniversityNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of Neural ScienceNew York UniversityNew YorkUSA