- 632 Downloads
Problem solving is the process of constructing and applying mental representations of problems to finding solutions to those problems that are encountered in nearly every context.
Problem solving is the process of articulating solutions to problems. Problems have two critical attributes. First, a problem is an unknown in some context. That is, there is a situation in which there is something that is unknown (the difference between a goal state and a current state). Those situations vary from algorithmic math problems to vexing and complex social problems, such as violence in society (see Problem Typology). Second, finding or solving for the unknown must have some social, cultural, or intellectual value. That is, someone believes that it is worth finding the unknown. If no one perceives an unknown or a need to determine an unknown, there is no perceived problem. Finding...
- Bransford, J., & Stein, B. S. (1984). The IDEAL problem solver: A guide for improving thinking, learning, and creativity. New York: WH Freeman.Google Scholar
- Frensch, P. A., & Funke, J. (Eds.). (1995). Complex problem solving: The European perspective. Hillsdale: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Jonassen, D. H. (2010). Learning to solve problems: A handbook. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Jonassen, D. H., & Hung, W. (2008). All problems are not equal: Implications for PBL. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-Based Learning, 2(2), 6–28.Google Scholar
- Jonassen, D. H. (2011). Learning to solve problems: A handbook for designing problem-solving learning environments. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Klein, G. A. (1998). Sources of power: How people make decisions. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Lehman, D., Lempert, R., & Nisbett, R. E. (1988). The effects of graduate training on reasoning: Formal discipline and thinking about everyday-life events. Educational Psychologist, 43, 431–442.Google Scholar
- Newell, A., & Simon, H. (1972). Human problem solving. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
- Rumelhart, D. E., & Norman, D. A. (1988). Representation in memory. In R. C. Atkinson, R. J. Herrnstein, G. Lindzey, & R. D. Luce (Eds.), Steven’s handbook of experimental psychology (Learning and cognition 2nd ed., Vol. 2, pp. 511–587). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Sinnott, J. D. (1989). Everyday problem solving: Theory and applications (pp. 72–99). New York: Praeger.Google Scholar