Trait anger is described as a dispositional characteristic where one experiences frequent anger, with varying intensity (e.g., mild irritability, intense rage), and is often accompanied by related negative emotions such as envy, resentment, hate, and disgust (Buss, 1961; Siegman & Smith, 1994). There is considerable construct overlap between hostile dispositions and trait anger, making it difficult to disentangle. Martin, Watson, and Wan (2000) have proposed a three-factor model of trait anger, which includes the anger-related affect, behavior (i.e., aggression), and cognitions (i.e., cynicism), similar to several of the subscales of the Cook-Medley Hostility Scale (Barefoot, Dodge, Peterson, Dahlstrom, & Williams, 1989). A frequently used measure of trait anger is the Spielberger State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI), which measures trait anger as having a proneness to experiencing anger either as a general tendency (Anger...
References and Readings
- Everson, S. A., Kauhanen, J., Kaplan, G. A., Goldberg, D. E., Julkunen, J., Tuomilehto, J., et al. (1997). Hostility and increased risk of mortality and acute myocardial infarction: The mediating role of behavioral risk factors. American Journal of Epidemiology, 146(2), 142–152.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Greeson, J. M., Lewis, J. G., Achanzar, K., Zimmerman, E., Young, K. H., & Suarez, E. C. (2009). Stress-induced changes in the expression of monocytic beta2-integrins: The impact of arousal of negative affect and adrenergic responses to the anger recall interview. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 23(2), 251–256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Siegman, A. W., & Smith, T. W. (Eds.). (1994). Anger, hostility, and the heart. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Spielberger, C. D. (1988). Manual for the state-trait anger expression inventory (STAXI). Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
- Spielberger, C., & Sydeman, S. J. (1994). State-trait anxiety inventory and state-trait anger expression inventory. In M. E. Maruish (Ed.), The use of psychological testing for treatment planning and outcome assessment (pp. 292–321). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Suarez, E. C., Kuhn, C. M., Schanberg, S. M., Williams, R. B., Jr., & Zimmermann, E. A. (1998). Neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and emotional responses of hostile men: The role of interpersonal challenge. Psychosom Medicine, 60(1), 78–88.Google Scholar