Basal Metabolic Rate
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Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the minimum level of energy required to sustain vital functions of organs such as the heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, intestine, nervous system, sex organs, muscles, and skin. It is measured at complete rest, in a neutrally temperate environment, in a fasting state, and measured by the heat production or oxygen consumption per unit time, and expressed as the calories released per kilogram of body weight or per square of body surface per hour. Although there are several equations to estimate BMR, it is affected by a variety of factors such as age, hormones, exercise, body temperature, nutritional status, climate, or pregnancy.
Total energy expenditure (TEE) is the amount of energy needed by a person to meet the overall physical demands, which is the sum of basal metabolic rate (BMR), dietary-induced thermogenesis, and energy consumption during activity (Ravussin, Lillioja, Anderson, Christin, & Bogardus, 1986). BMR is the largest component of TEE,...
References and Readings
- Elia, M. (1992). Energy expenditure in the whole body. In J. M. Kinney & H. N. Tucker (Eds.), Energy metabolism: Tissue determinants and cellular corollaries (pp. 19–59). New York: Raven.Google Scholar
- Harris, J. A., & Benedict, F. G. (1919). A biometric study of basal metabolism in man. Washington, DC: Carnegie Institute of Washington Publication. Publication No. 279.Google Scholar