Encyclopedia of Behavioral Medicine

2013 Edition
| Editors: Marc D. Gellman, J. Rick Turner

Basal Metabolic Rate

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1005-9_377


Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the minimum level of energy required to sustain vital functions of organs such as the heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, intestine, nervous system, sex organs, muscles, and skin. It is measured at complete rest, in a neutrally temperate environment, in a fasting state, and measured by the heat production or oxygen consumption per unit time, and expressed as the calories released per kilogram of body weight or per square of body surface per hour. Although there are several equations to estimate BMR, it is affected by a variety of factors such as age, hormones, exercise, body temperature, nutritional status, climate, or pregnancy.

Total energy expenditure (TEE) is the amount of energy needed by a person to meet the overall physical demands, which is the sum of basal metabolic rate (BMR), dietary-induced thermogenesis, and energy consumption during activity (Ravussin, Lillioja, Anderson, Christin, & Bogardus, 1986). BMR is the largest component of TEE,...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References and Readings

  1. Daly, J. M., Heymsfield, S. B., Head, C. A., Harvey, L. P., Nixon, D. W., Katzeff, H., et al. (1985). Human energy requirements: Overestimation by widely used prediction equation. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 42(6), 1170–1174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. DuBois, D., & DuBois, E. F. (1915). The measurements of the surface area of man. Archives of Internal Medicine, 15, 868–875.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Elia, M. (1992). Energy expenditure in the whole body. In J. M. Kinney & H. N. Tucker (Eds.), Energy metabolism: Tissue determinants and cellular corollaries (pp. 19–59). New York: Raven.Google Scholar
  4. Harris, J. A., & Benedict, F. G. (1919). A biometric study of basal metabolism in man. Washington, DC: Carnegie Institute of Washington Publication. Publication No. 279.Google Scholar
  5. Ravussin, E., & Bogardus, C. (1989). Relationship of genetics, age, and physical fitness to daily energy expenditure and fuel utilization. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 49(Suppl. 5), 968–975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Ravussin, E., Lillioja, S., Anderson, T. E., Christin, L., & Bogardus, C. (1986). Determinants of 24-hour energy expenditure in man. Methods and results using a respiratory chamber. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 78(6), 1568–1578.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Metabolic DiseasesGraduate School of Medicine The University of TokyoBunkyo-ku, TokyoJapan