Encyclopedia of Behavioral Medicine

2013 Edition
| Editors: Marc D. Gellman, J. Rick Turner

Maintenance Phase of the Transtheoretical Model of Change

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1005-9_1149


The Transtheoretical Model of Change (TTM) is characterized by six ‘stages of change’ (precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, and termination) that individuals move through when attempting to change problematic health behavior, such as smoking (Shumaker, Ockene, & Riekert, 2009).

Individuals reach the ‘maintenance’ phase of the TTM when the positive health behavior, for example, complete abstinence from smoking, is sustained for a period of 6 months or longer (Glanz, Rimer, & Viswanath, 2008). Self-efficacy (or situation-specific confidence) plays an integral role in this stage. As an individual’s ability to abstain from the risky health behavior increases, so too does their ability to avoid relapse. The risk of relapse is eliminated once an individual reaches the final ‘termination’ stage of the TTM, in which the positive health behavior has become automatic (Shumaker et al., 2009).


References and Readings

  1. Glanz, K., Rimer, B. K., & Viswanath, K. (Eds.). (2008). Health behavior and health education: Theory, research, and practice (4th ed.). San Francisco: Jossey Bass.Google Scholar
  2. Miller, W. R., & Heather, N. (Eds.). (1998). Treating addictive behaviors (2nd ed.). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  3. Prochaska, J. O., & Norcross, J. C. (2010). Systems of psychotherapy: A transtheoretical analysis (7th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  4. Shumaker, S. A., Ockene, J. K., & Riekert, K. A. (Eds.). (2009). The handbook of health behavior change (3rd ed.). New York: Springer.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Public Health & Health SystemsUniversity of WaterlooWaterlooCanada