Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology

2012 Edition
| Editors: Robert A. Meyers

Natural Ventilation in Built Environment

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-0851-3_488

Definition of the Subject

Natural ventilation uses the natural forces of wind and buoyancy to introduce fresh air and distribute it effectively in buildings for the benefit of the occupants. Fresh air is required to achieve a healthy, fresh, and comfortable indoor environment for people to work and live in. Natural ventilation can ensure or support the supply of adequate breathing air, adequate ventilation of contaminants, adequate thermal conditioning and moisture dissipation, and contribute to well-being through a connection to the dynamics of nature. For natural ventilation to be effective, there has to be a close relationship between the architecture and the air circulation system. This includes the relationship between the built form, the site environment in a particular location, and the layout within the building.

The Natural History Museum in London, designed by Alfred Waterhouse in the Victorian age, is an excellent example of design for natural ventilation. The architect...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Lee Hargreaves (WSP, UK Ltd.) for his help with researching and organizing some case studies; Mike Beaven of Arup Associates for some case studies; Matt Kitson (Hilson Moran) for providing Gherkin images; Professor Vivian Loftness (Carnegie Mellon University, USA) for providing architectural images and Fig. 21; Beifan Yang and Bin Zhang (Tianjin Weland Landscape Architecture Design Co, Ltd. China) for the architectural drawings; Jin Zhang (JINT Design Consultants Ltd.) for architectural sketch; and Dr Malcolm Cook (Loughborough University) for providing the images of Queens Building.

Bibliography

  1. 1.
    Elliott CD (1992) Technics and architecture: the development of materials and systems for buildings. MIT Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fathy H (1986) Natural energy and vernacular architecture, principles and examples with reference to hot arid climates. The University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Miller JD (2007) Indoor air quality and occupant health in the residential built environment: future directions. In: Yoshino H (ed) Proceedings IAQVEC 2007, Sendai, Japan. ISBN 978-4-86163-069-9, pp 15–22Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Von Frisch K (1975) Animal architecture. Hutchinson, LondonGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fitch JM (1976) American building: the environmental forces that shape it. Schocken Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    BSI (1991) BS 5925:1991 Code of practice for ventilation principles and designing for natural ventilation. BSI, LondonGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Texas Tech University (2004) The wind science and engineering (WISE) research center; Available from http://www.wind.ttu.edu/. Accessed 11 June 2004
  8. 8.
    CIBSE (2006) Guide A: environmental design. The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers, LondonGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Liddament MW (1996) A guide to energy efficient ventilation. Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre, CoventryGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    CIBSE (2005) AM10: Natural ventilation in non-domestic buildings. The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers, LondonGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Liddament MW (2010) The applicability of natural ventilation. In: CIBSE Natural Ventilation Group Seminar 2010 – Natural ventilation in the urban environment. RIBA, LondonGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    The Gherkin (2008) http://www.30stmaryaxe.co.uk/. Accessed 8 Sept 2011
  13. 13.
    Abbas T (2008) MSc intelligent buildings, lecture notes. Hilson Moran, LondonGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hazim A (2003) Ventilation of buildings, 2nd edn. Spon Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Seppänen O, Fisk W, Mendell M (1999) Association of ventilation rates and CO2 concentrations with health and other responses in commercial and institutional buildings. Indoor Air 9(4):226–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wargocki P, Seppanen O, Anderson J, Boerstra A, Clements-Croome D, Fitzner K, Olaf Hanssen S (2006) Indoor climate and productivity in offices: guide book 6. Federation of European Heating and Air-Conditioning Associations (REHVA), BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    ASHRAE (2010) Standard 62.1-2010 – Ventilation for acceptable indoor air quality. American Society Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), AtlantaGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    ASHRAE (2009) Handbook – Fundamentals, chapter 9 Thermal comfort. American Society Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), AtlantaGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Croome DJ, Roberts BM (1975) Airconditioning and Ventilation of Buildings (Pergamon Press); second edition 1981Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Etheridge D, Sandberg M (1996) Building ventilation theory and measurement. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Linke W (1956) Strömungsvorgänge in künstlich belüfteten Räumen, Forschungsberichte des Wirtschafts und Verkehrsministeriums des Landes, NRW Nr 259. Kaltetechnik 18:122Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Müllejans H (1973) Über die Bedingungen von Modellversuchen in der Klimatechnik. Ki 8/73, Teil 6, S. 63 ffGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    van Gunst E, Erkelens PJ, Coenders WPJ (1967) In 4th congress international du chauffage et de la climatisation, ParisGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Fang L, Clausen G, Fanger PO (1998) Impact of temperature and humidity on perception of indoor air quality during immediate and longer whole-body exposures. Indoor Air 8:276–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Fang L, Clausen G, Fanger PO (1998) Impact of temperature and humidity on the perception of indoor air quality. Indoor Air 8:80–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wargocki P (2004) Sensory pollution sources in buildings. Indoor Air 14:82–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Clements-Croome DJ (2008) Work performance, productivity and indoor air. Scand J Work Environ Health Suppl 4:69–78Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Health Canada (2010) Environmental and workplace health; Available from www.hc-sc.gc.ca. Accessed 15 Aug 2010
  29. 29.
    ECA (1992) Report no. 11 – Guidelines for ventilation requirements in buildings in environment and quality of life, European Collaborative Action – Indoor air quality & its impact on man, EUR 14449 ENGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dobson R (2008) Smoking bans reduce heart attack admissions. British Med J 337: a597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    ISO:7730 (2005) Ergonomics of thermal environments – Analytical determination and interpretation of thermal comfort using calculation of the PMV and PPD indices and local thermal comfort criteria. International Organization for Standardization (ISO), GenevaGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    CCOHS (2002) Health effects of carbon dioxide gas. Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, Hamilton, OntarioGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Robertson D (2006) Health effects of increase in concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Curr Sci 90(12):1607–1609Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    HSE (1990) Occupational exposure limits – guide note EH 40/90. Health and Safety Executive, HMSO, LondonGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hinds WC (1999) Aerosol technology: properties, behavior, and measurement of airborne particles. Wiley, New York, pp 464Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Brown T, Holmes P, Harrison PTC (2010) Review: the applicability of epidemiological methods to the assessment of the risks to human health of indoor air pollution: an overview. Indoor Built Environ 19(3):311–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Pennycook K (2009) The illustrated guide to ventilation. In BSRIA guide – BG 2/2009. The Building Services Research and Information Association (BSRIA), BracknellGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Boyce PR (2010) Review: the impact of light in buildings on human health. Indoor Built Environ 19(1):8–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    RAE (2010) Engineering a low carbon built environment – The discipline of Building Engineering Physics. The Royal Academy of Engineering, LondonGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Mardaljevic J, Heschong L, Lee E (2009) Daylight metrics and energy savings. Lighting Res Technol 41(3):261–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Wiki (2010) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urban_canyon. Accessed 18 July 2010
  42. 42.
    Barlag AB, Kuttler W (1990/1991) The significance of country breezes for urban planning. Energy and Buildings 15(3–4):291–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ghiaus C, Allard F (2005) Natural ventilation in the urban environment. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Fukao S (2010) The history of developments toward open building in Japan. Lecture at Loughborough University, UK on 16 July 2010Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    CIB (2010) W104 Open building implementation; Available from http://www.open-building.org/ob/next21.html. Accessed 20 July 2010
  46. 46.
    Clausen G, Carrick L, Fanger PO, Kim SW, Poulsen T, Rindel JH (1993) A comparative study of discomfort caused by indoor air pollution, thermal load and noise. Indoor Air 3:255–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Mumovic D, Davies M, Ridley I, Altamirano-Medina H, Oreszczyn T (2009) A methodology for post-occupancy evaluation of ventilation rates in schools. Building Serv Eng Res Technol 30(2):143–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Coley DA, Hunt S, Mitchell A (2009) Acoustics in schools: explaining the options to architects by the use of approximate formulae and graphs, with a special emphasis on dining spaces. Indoor Built Environ 18(6):505–513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Mathisen HM, Moser A, Nielsen PV (2004) Guidebook no. 2 – Ventilation effectiveness. In: Mundt E (ed) Federation of European heating and air-conditioning associations REHVA Journal, Brussels, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Gan G (2000) Effective depth of fresh air distribution in rooms with single-sided natural ventilation. Energy and Buildings 31(1):65–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Coffey CJ, Hunt GR (2007) Ventilation effectiveness measures based on heat removal: part 2 Application to natural ventilation flows. Building Environ 42(6):2249–2262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Short CA, Cook MJ (2005) Design guidance for naturally ventilated theatres. Building Serv Eng Res Technol 26(3):259–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    WHO (2009) Natural ventilation for infection control in health-care settings. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    ASHRAE (2009) Indoor Air Quality Guide - Best Practices for Design, Construction, and Commissioning, in ASHRAE Design Guide. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, AtlantaGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Seppänen O, Fisk W (2004) Summary of human responses to ventilation. Indoor Air 14(7):102–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    ISIAQ (1996) Control of moisture problems affecting biological indoor air quality. In: Task Force Report. International Society of Indoor Air Quality and Climate (ISIAQ), Austin, TXGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    CIBSE (2005) Guide B: heating, ventilating, air conditioning and refrigeration. The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers, London, pp 2–9Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Lomas KJ (2007) Architectural design of an advanced naturally ventilated building form. Energy and Buildings 39(2):166–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Short CA, Cook MJ, Woods A (2009) Low energy ventilation and cooling within an urban heat island. Renewable Energy 34:2022–2029CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Ford B, Schiano-Phan R, Francis E (2010) The architecture and engineering of downdraught cooling: a design source book. PHDC Press, London. ISBN 978-0-9565790-0-3Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Loftness V, Snyder M (2008) Where windows become doors. In: Kellert S, Heerwagen J, Mador M (eds) Biophilic design. Wiley, Hoboken, pp 119–131Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    CIBSE (1997) AM10: natural ventilation in non-domestic buildings. The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers, LondonGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Cohen R (1997) Environmental criteria for naturally ventilated buildings. In: Clements-Croome D (ed) Naturally ventilated buildings – Buildings for the senses, economy and society. E & FN SPON, LondonGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Allard F (1998) Natural ventilation in buildings - a design handbook, James & James Ltd, London, pp. 366. ISBN 9781873936726.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Chen Q (2009) Ventilation performance prediction for buildings: a method overview and recent applications. Building Environ 44(4):848–858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Jiru TE, Bitsuamlak GT (2010) Application of CFD in modelling wind-induced natural ventilation of buildings – a review. Int J Ventilation 9(2):131–147Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Walker CE (2006) Methodology for the evaluation of natural ventilation in buildings using a reduced-scale air model. PhD thesis, Department of Architecture, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA, p 211Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Cropper P, Yang T, Cook M, Fiala D, Yousaf R (2010) Coupling a model of human thermoregulation with Computational Fluid Dynamics for predicting human-environment interaction. J Building Perform Simulation 3(3):233–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Zhang H, Arens E, Huizenga C, Han T (2010) Thermal sensation and comfort models for non-uniform and transient environments, part III: whole-body sensation and comfort. Building Environ 45:399–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Lomas KJ, Ji Y (2009) Resilience of naturally ventilated buildings to climate change: advanced natural ventilation and hospital wards. Energ Buildings 41(6):629–653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    DoE (2010) Building energy software tools directory. Energy efficiency & renewable energy; Available from http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/tools_directory/. Accessed 12 June 2010
  72. 72.
    IBPSA-Germany (2010) Simupedia - A wiki about building simulation. Accessed 25 Aug 2009Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Kolokotroni M (2007) Vent dis.course – Development of distance learning vocational training material for the promotion of best practice ventilation energy performance in buildings. European Commission Intelligent Energy – Europe Programme Publishable Final Report (EIE/04/022/S07.38630)Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Healthheating (2010) Indoor environmental quality – Educational resource of the building and health sciences; Available from http://www.healthyheating.com/index.htm. Accessed 06 March 2010
  75. 75.
    Mumovic D, Santamouris M (eds) (2009) A handbook of sustainable building design & engineering. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Pearson A (2011) Getting on the air … naturally. CIBSE Journal, Feb issue, pp 28–32. Available from http://www.cibsejournal.com/issues/2011-02/
  77. 77.
    Noble C (2011) Commerzbank: a sustainable skyscraper. Architecture 489; Available from http://web.utk.edu/∼archinfo/a489_f02/PDF/commerzbank.pdf. Accessed 12 Feb 2011
  78. 78.
    Foster + Partners. Commerzbank Headquarters. Frankfurt, Germany; Available from http://www.fosterandpartners.com/Projects/0626/Default.aspx
  79. 79.
    BSI (2010) Constructing the business case – building information modelling. British Standard Institution and Building SMART UK, LondonGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Alwaer H, Clements-Croome DJ (2010) Key performance indicators (KPIs) and priority setting in using the multi-attribute approach for assessing sustainable intelligent buildings. Building Environ 45(4):799–807CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil and Building EngineeringLoughborough UniversityLeicestershireUK
  2. 2.School of Construction Management and EngineeringUniversity of ReadingReadingUK