Carcinoma and Other Tumors of the Cervix

  • Agnieszka K. Witkiewicz
  • Thomas C. Wright
  • Alex Ferenczy
  • Brigitte M. Ronnett
  • Robert J. Kurman

Abstract

The World Health Organization (WHO) recognizes three general categories of invasive carcinoma of the cervix: squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and “other epithelial tumors” (Table 6.1 ) [278]. The “other epithelial tumors” include adenosquamous carcinoma, adenoid basal cell carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinomas, as well as neuroendocrine tumors and undifferentiated carcinoma (Table 6.1 ) [278]. The relative frequency of these different tumor types varies between studies; in general, squamous cell carcinoma is the most common histologic subtype accounting for 70–80% of invasive carcinomas. Adenocarcinoma and adenosquamous carcinoma comprise 10–15% of all cases, and all others 10–15% [45, 245, 271].

Keywords

Cervical Cancer Small Cell Carcinoma Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma Clear Cell Carcinoma Invasive Cervical Cancer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Abeler VM, Holm R et al (1994) Small cell carcinoma of the cervix. A clinicopathologic study of 26 patients. Cancer 73(3):672–677PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Agoff SN, Lamps LW et al (2000) Thyroid transcription factor-1 is expressed in extrapulmonary small cell carcinomas but not in other extrapulmonary neuroendocrine tumors. Mod Pathol 13(3):238–242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Albores-Saavedra J, Gersell D et al (1997) Terminology of endocrine tumors of the uterine cervix: results of a workshop sponsored by the College of American Pathologists and the National Cancer Institute. Arch Pathol Lab Med 121(1):34–39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Albores-Saavedra J, Larraza O et al (1976) Carcinoid of the uterine cervix: additional observations on a new tumor entity. Cancer 38(6):2328–2342PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Albores-Saavedra J, Manivel C et al (1992) The solid variant of adenoid cystic carcinoma of the cervix. Int J Gynecol Pathol 11(1):2–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Alfsen GC, Kristensen GB et al (2001) Histologic subtype has minor importance for overall survival in patients with adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix: a population-based study of prognostic factors in 505 patients with nonsquamous cell carcinomas of the cervix. Cancer 92(9):2471–2483PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Alfsen GC, Thoresen SO et al (2000) Histopathologic subtyping of cervical adenocarcinoma reveals increasing incidence rates of endometrioid tumors in all age groups: a population based study with review of all nonsquamous cervical carcinomas in Norway from 1966 to 1970, 1976 to 1980, and 1986 to 1990. Cancer 89(6):1291–1299PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    al-Nafussi AI, Hughes DE (1994) Histological features of CIN3 and their value in predicting invasive microinvasive squamous carcinoma. J Clin Pathol 47(9):799–804PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ambros RA, Park JS et al (1991) Evaluation of histologic, morphometric, and immunohistochemical criteria in the differential diagnosis of small cell carcinomas of the cervix with particular reference to human papillomavirus types 16 and 18. Mod Pathol 4(5):586–593PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Andersen ES, Nielsen K et al (1995) The reliability of preconization diagnostic evaluation in patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and microinvasive carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 59(1):143–147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Andersson S, Rylander E et al (2001) The role of human papillomavirus in cervical adenocarcinoma carcinogenesis. Eur J Cancer 37(2):246–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ansari-Lari MA, Staebler A et al (2004) Distinction of endocervical and endometrial adenocarcinomas: immunohistochemical p16 expression correlated with human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA detection. Am J Surg Pathol 28(2):160–167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Anton-Culver H, Bloss JD et al (1992) Comparison of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix: a population-based epidemiologic study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 166(5):1507–1514PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Aoyama C, Peters J et al (1998) Uterine cervical dysplasia and cancer: identification of c-myc status by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Diagn Mol Pathol 7(6):324–330PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Appleby P, Beral V et al (2006) Carcinoma of the cervix and tobacco smoking: collaborative reanalysis of individual data on 13,541 women with carcinoma of the cervix and 23,017 women without carcinoma of the cervix from 23 epidemiological studies. Int J Cancer 118(6):1481–1495PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Attanoos R, Nahar K et al (1995) Primary adenocarcinoma of the cervix. A clinicopathologic study of prognostic variables in 55 cases. Int J Gynecol Cancer 5(3):179–186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Averette HE, Nelson JH Jr et al (1976) Diagnosis and management of microinvasive (stage IA) carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Cancer 38(1 SUPPL):414–425PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Averette HE, Nguyen HN et al (1993) Radical hysterectomy for invasive cervical cancer. A 25-year prospective experience with the Miami technique. Cancer 71(4 Suppl):1422–1437PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bachtiary B, Obermair A et al (2002) Impact of multiple HPV infection on response to treatment and survival in patients receiving radical radiotherapy for cervical cancer. Int J Cancer 102(3):237–243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bais AG, Kooi S et al (2005) Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the uterine cervix: absence of Epstein-Barr virus, but presence of a multiple human papillomavirus infection. Gynecol Oncol 97(2):716–718PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bell MC, Schmidt-Grimminger DC et al (1996) A cervical teratoma with invasive squamous cell carcinoma in an HIV-infected patient: a case report. Gynecol Oncol 60(3):475–479PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Benedet JL, Anderson GH (1996) Stage IA carcinoma of the cervix revisited. Obstet Gynecol 87(6):1052–1059PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Benedet JL, Anderson GH et al (1985) Colposcopic accuracy in the diagnosis of microinvasive and occult invasive carcinoma of the cervix. Obstet Gynecol 65(4):557–562PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Benedet JL, Bender H et al (2000) FIGO staging classifications and clinical practice guidelines in the management of gynecologic cancers. FIGO Committee on Gynecologic Oncology. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 70(2):209–262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Benedetti-Panici P, Maneschi F et al (2000) Early cervical carcinoma: the natural history of lymph node involvement redefined on the basis of thorough parametrectomy and giant section study. Cancer 88(10):2267–2274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Berek JS, Hacker NF et al (1985) Adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix: histologic variables associated with lymph node metastasis and survival. Obstet Gynecol 65(1):46–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bohm JW, Krupp PJ et al (1976) Lymph node metastasis in microinvasive epidermoid cancer of the cervix. Obstet Gynecol 48(1):65–67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Boyes DA, Worth AJ et al (1970) The results of treatment of 4389 cases of preclinical cervical squamous carcinoma. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw 77(9):769–780PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Brainard JA, Hart WR (1998) Adenoid basal epitheliomas of the uterine cervix: a reevaluation of distinctive cervical basaloid lesions currently classified as adenoid basal carcinoma and adenoid basal hyperplasia. Am J Surg Pathol 22(8):965–975PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bray F, Carstensen B et al (2005) Incidence trends of adenocarcinoma of the cervix in 13 European countries. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14(9):2191–2199PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Brinck U, Jakob C et al (2000) Papillary squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix: report of three cases and a review of its classification. Int J Gynecol Pathol 19(3):231–235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Broders AC (1920) Squamous-cell epithelioma of the lip: a study of five hundred and thirty-seven cases. JAMA 74:656–664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bulk S, Visser O et al (2005) Cervical cancer in the Netherlands 1989-1998: Decrease of squamous cell carcinoma in older women, increase of adenocarcinoma in younger women. Int J Cancer 113(6):1005–1009PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Burghardt E, Girardi F et al (1991) Microinvasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage IA). Cancer 67(4):1037–1045PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Burghardt E, Holzer E (1977) Diagnosis and treatment of microinvasive carcinoma of the cervix uteri. Obstet Gynecol 49(6):641–653PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Cairns M, Cruickshank M (2007) A review of women with microinvasive cervical cancer in the Grampian region. J Low Genit Tract Dis 11(4):290–293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Cantu de Leon D, Perez Montiel D et al (2009) Serous adenocarcinoma of the fallopian tube, associated with verrucous carcinoma of the uterine cervix: a case report of synchronic rare gynecological tumors. World J Surg Oncol 7:20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Cantuaria G, Angioli R et al (1999) Primary malignant melanoma of the uterine cervix: case report and review of the literature. Gynecol Oncol 75(1):170–174PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Castellsague X, Diaz M et al (2006) Worldwide human papillomavirus etiology of cervical adenocarcinoma and its cofactors: implications for screening and prevention. J Natl Cancer Inst 98(5):303–315PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Chen RJ, Lin YH et al (1999) Influence of histologic type and age on survival rates for invasive cervical carcinoma in Taiwan. Gynecol Oncol 73(2):184–190PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Cheng WF, Chen CA et al (2000) Vascular endothelial growth factor and prognosis of cervical carcinoma. Obstet Gynecol 96(5 Pt 1):721–726PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Chichareon S, Herrero R et al (1998) Risk factors for cervical cancer in Thailand: a case-control study. J Natl Cancer Inst 90(1):50–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Cho NH, Joo HJ et al (1998) Detection of human papillomavirus in warty carcinoma of the uterine cervix: comparison of immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization and in situ polymerase chain reaction methods. Pathol Res Pract 194(10):713–720PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Clark KC, Butz WR et al (1999) Primary malignant melanoma of the uterine cervix: case report with world literature review. Int J Gynecol Pathol 18(3):265–273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Clement PB, Scully RE (1982) Carcinoma of the cervix: histologic types. Semin Oncol 9(3):251–264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Clement PB, Young RH et al (1995) Malignant mesonephric neoplasms of the uterine cervix. A report of eight cases, including four with a malignant spindle cell component. Am J Surg Pathol 19(10):1158–1171PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Clement PB, Zubovits JT et al (1998) Malignant mullerian mixed tumors of the uterine cervix: a report of nine cases of a neoplasm with morphology often different from its counterpart in the corpus. Int J Gynecol Pathol 17(3):211–222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Clifford G, Franceschi S et al (2006) Chapter 3: HPV type-distribution in women with and without cervical neoplastic diseases. Vaccine 24(S3):26–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Clifford GM, Smith JS et al (2003) Human papillomavirus types in invasive cervical cancer worldwide: a meta-analysis. Br J Cancer 88(1):63–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Connolly DC, Katabuchi H et al (2000) Somatic mutations in the STK11/LKB1 gene are uncommon in rare gynecological tumor types associated with Peutz-Jegher's syndrome. Am J Pathol 156(1):339–345PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Copeland LJ, Silva EG et al (1992) Superficially invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Gynecol Oncol 45(3):307–312PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Copeland LJ, Sneige N et al (1985) Endodermal sinus tumor of the vagina and cervix. Cancer 55(11):2558–2565PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Coppleson M (1992) Early invasive squamous and adnocarcinoma of the cervix (FIGO stage Ia): clinical features and management. In: Gynecological oncology. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, pp 631–634Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Covens A, Kirby J et al (1999) Prognostic factors for relapse and pelvic lymph node metastases in early stage I adenocarcinoma of the cervix. Gynecol Oncol 74(3):423–427PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Creasman WT (1995) New gynecologic cancer staging. Gynecol Oncol 58(2):157–158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Creasman WT, Fetter BF et al (1985) Management of stage IA carcinoma of the cervix. Am J Obstet Gynecol 153(2):164–172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Crum CP (1993) Papillomavirus-related changes and premalignant and malignant squamous lesions of the uterine cervix. In: Clement PB, Young RH (eds) Tumors and tumorlike lesions of the uterine corpus and cervix. Churchill Livingstone, New York, pp 51–83Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Cruz J, Reis-Filho JS et al (2004) Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour-like primary cutaneous malignant melanoma. J Clin Pathol 57(2):218–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Dabbs DJ, Sturtz K et al (1996) The immunohistochemical discrimination of endometrioid adenocarcinomas. Hum Pathol 27(2):172–177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Daya D, Young RH (1995) Florid deep glands of the uterine cervix. Another mimic of adenoma malignum. Am J Clin Pathol 103(5):614–617PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Delgado G, Bundy BN et al (1989) A prospective surgical pathological study of stage I squamous carcinoma of the cervix: a Gynecologic Oncology Group Study. Gynecol Oncol 35(3):314–320PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Delgado G, Bundy B et al (1990) Prospective surgical-pathological study of disease-free interval in patients with stage IB squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Gynecol Oncol 38(3):352–357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Diaz JP, Sonoda Y et al (2008) Oncologic outcome of fertility-sparing radical trachelectomy versus radical hysterectomy for stage IB1 cervical carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 111(2):255–260PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Dinges HP, Werner R et al (1977) Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the cervix uteri. Zentralbl Gynakol 99(7):396–403PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Edwards BK, Brown ML et al (2005) Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975-2002, featuring population-based trends in cancer treatment. J Natl Cancer Inst 97(19):1407–1427PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Ehrmann RL, Dwyer IM et al (1988) An immunoperoxidase study of laminin and type IV collagen distribution in carcinoma of the cervix and vulva. Obstet Gynecol 72(2):257–262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Eichhorn JH, Young RH (2001) Neuroendocrine tumors of the genital tract. Am J Clin Pathol 115(Suppl):S94–S112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Eifel PJ, Morris M et al (1990) Adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. Prognosis and patterns of failure in 367 cases. Cancer 65(11):2507–2514PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Farley JH, Hickey KW et al (2003) Adenosquamous histology predicts a poor outcome for patients with advanced-stage, but not early-stage, cervical carcinoma. Cancer 97(9):2196–2202PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Ferrandina G, Lauriola L et al (2002) Increased cyclooxygenase-2 expression is associated with chemotherapy resistance and poor survival in cervical cancer patients. J Clin Oncol 20(4):973–981PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Ferrandina G, Ranelletti FO et al (2003) Celecoxib modulates the expression of cyclooxygenase-2, ki67, apoptosis-related marker, and microvessel density in human cervical cancer: a pilot study. Clin Cancer Res 9(12):4324–4331PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Ferry JA (1997) Adenoid basal carcinoma of the uterine cervix: evolution of a distinctive clinicopathologic entity. Int J Gynecol Pathol 16(4):299–300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Ferry JA, Scully RE (1988) “Adenoid cystic” carcinoma and adenoid basal carcinoma of the uterine cervix. A study of 28 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 12(2):134–144PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Ferry JA, Scully RE (1990) Mesonephric remnants, hyperplasia, and neoplasia in the uterine cervix. A study of 49 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 14(12):1100–1111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Fetissof F, Berger G et al (1985) Endocrine cells in the female genital tract. Histopathology 9(2):133–145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Folpe AL, Goldblum JR et al (2005) Morphologic and immunophenotypic diversity in Ewing family tumors: a study of 66 genetically confirmed cases. Am J Surg Pathol 29(8):1025–1033PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Franco EL, Schlecht NF et al (2003) The epidemiology of cervical cancer. Cancer J 9(5):348–359PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Frega A, Lukic A et al (2007) Verrucous carcinoma of the cervix: detection of carcinogenetic human papillomavirus types and their role during follow-up. Anticancer Res 27(6C):4491–4494PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Fuchs I, Vorsteher N et al (2007) The prognostic significance of human epidermal growth factor receptor correlations in squamous cell cervical carcinoma. Anticancer Res 27(2):959–963PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Fujiwara H, Mitchell MF et al (1995) Clear cell adenosquamous carcinoma of the cervix. An aggressive tumor associated with human papillomavirus-18. Cancer 76(9):1591–1600PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Gadducci A, Sartori E et al (2003) The clinical outcome of patients with stage Ia1 and Ia2 squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix: a Cooperation Task Force (CTF) study. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol 24(6):513–516PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Gaffney DK, Holden J et al (2001) Elevated cyclooxygenase-2 expression correlates with diminished survival in carcinoma of the cervix treated with radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 49(5):1213–1217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Gaffney DK, Winter K et al (2007) A Phase II study of acute toxicity for Celebrex (celecoxib) and chemoradiation in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer: primary endpoint analysis of RTOG 0128. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 67(1):104–109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Gallardo A, Prat J (2009) Mullerian adenosarcoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 55 cases challenging the existence of adenofibroma. Am J Surg Pathol 33(2):278–288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Gersell DJ, Mazoujian G et al (1988) Small-cell undifferentiated carcinoma of the cervix. A clinicopathologic, ultrastructural, and immunocytochemical study of 15 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 12(9):684–698PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Gilks CB, Young RH et al (1989) Adenoma malignum (minimal deviation adenocarcinoma) of the uterine cervix. A clinicopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of 26 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 13(9):717–729PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Gilks CB, Young RH et al (1997) Large cell neuroendocrine [corrected] carcinoma of the uterine cervix: a clinicopathologic study of 12 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 21(8):905–914PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Gombos Z, Xu X et al (2005) Peritumoral lymphatic vessel density and vascular endothelial growth factor C expression in early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Clin Cancer Res 11(23):8364–8371PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Goncalves A, Fabbro M et al (2008) A phase II trial to evaluate gefitinib as second- or third-line treatment in patients with recurring locoregionally advanced or metastatic cervical cancer. Gynecol Oncol 108(1):42–46PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Grayson W, Rhemtula HA et al (2002) Detection of human papillomavirus in large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the uterine cervix: a study of 12 cases. J Clin Pathol 55(2):108–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Grayson W, Taylor LF et al (1999) Adenoid cystic and adenoid basal carcinoma of the uterine cervix: comparative morphologic, mucin, and immunohistochemical profile of two rare neoplasms of putative “reserve cell” origin. Am J Surg Pathol 23(4):448–458PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Grayson W, Taylor LF et al (2001) Carcinosarcoma of the uterine cervix: a report of eight cases with immunohistochemical analysis and evaluation of human papillomavirus status. Am J Surg Pathol 25(3):338–347PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Green J, Berrington de Gonzalez A et al (2003) Risk factors for adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix in women aged 20-44 years: the UK National Case-Control Study of Cervical Cancer. Br J Cancer 89(11):2078–2086PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Greer BE, Figge DC et al (1990) Stage IA2 squamous carcinoma of the cervix: difficult diagnosis and therapeutic dilemma. Am J Obstet Gynecol 162(6):1406–1409, discussion 1409-1411PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Gur G, Rubin C et al (2004) LRIG1 restricts growth factor signaling by enhancing receptor ubiquitylation and degradation. Embo J 23(16):3270–3281PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Gusterson BA, Clinton S et al (1986) Studies of early invasive and intraepithelial squamous cell carcinomas using an antibody to type IV collagen. Histopathology 10(2):161–169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Hanselaar A, van Loosbroek M et al (1997) Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina and cervix. An update of the central Netherlands registry showing twin age incidence peaks. Cancer 79(11):2229–2236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Hasumi K, Sakamoto A et al (1980) Microinvasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Cancer 45(5):928–931PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Hellberg D, Tot T et al (2009) Pitfalls in immunohistochemical validation of tumor marker expression–exemplified in invasive cancer of the uterine cervix. Gynecol Oncol 112(1):235–240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Herbert A, Anshu et al (2009) Screen-detected invasive cervical carcinoma and its clinical significance during the introduction of organized screening. BJOG 116(6):854–859PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Herrera FG, Chan P et al (2007) A prospective phase I-II trial of the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib in patients with carcinoma of the cervix with biomarker assessment of the tumor microenvironment. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 67(1):97–103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Hirai Y, Takeshima N et al (1998) A clinicocytopathologic study of adenoma malignum of the uterine cervix. Gynecol Oncol 70(2):219–223PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Ho CM, Chien TY et al (2004) Multivariate analysis of the prognostic factors and outcomes in early cervical cancer patients undergoing radical hysterectomy. Gynecol Oncol 93(2):458–464PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Hocking GR, Hayman JA et al (1996) Adenocarcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix progressing to invasive adenocarcinoma. Aust NZ J Obstet Gynaecol 36(2):218–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Holowaty P, Miller AB et al (1999) Natural history of dysplasia of the uterine cervix. J Natl Cancer Inst 91(3):252–258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Horn LC, Fischer U et al (2006) Pattern of invasion is of prognostic value in surgically treated cervical cancer patients. Gynecol Oncol 103(3):906–911PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Horn LC, Lindner K et al (2006) p16, p14, p53, and cyclin D1 expression and HPV analysis in small cell carcinomas of the uterine cervix. Int J Gynecol Pathol 25(2):182–186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Huffman JW (1948) Mesonephric remnants in the cervix. Am J Obstet Gynecol 56(1):23–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Hunter MI, Monk BJ et al (2008) Cervical neoplasia in pregnancy. Part 1: screening and management of preinvasive disease. Am J Obstet Gynecol 199(1):3–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Hurt WG, Silverberg SG et al (1977) Adenocarcinoma of the cervix: histopathologic and clinical features. Am J Obstet Gynecol 129(3):304–315PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Inoue T, Morita K (1990) The prognostic significance of number of positive nodes in cervical carcinoma stages IB, IIA, and IIB. Cancer 65(9):1923–1927PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Inoue T, Yamaguchi K et al (1984) Production of immunoreactive-polypeptide hormones in cervical carcinoma. Cancer 53(7):1509–1514PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    International Collaboration of Epidemiological Studies of Cervical Cancer (2007) Comparison of risk factors for invasive squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the cervix: collaborative reanalysis of individual data on 8, 097 women with squamous cell carcinoma and 1,374 women with adenocarcinoma from 12 epidemiological studies. Int J Cancer 120(4):885–891CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Ishikawa H, Nakanishi T et al (1999) Prognostic factors of adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. Gynecol Oncol 73(1):42–46PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Jemal A, Siegel R et al (2006) Cancer statistics, 2006. CA Cancer J Clin 56(2):106–130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Jemal A, Siegel R et al (2008) Cancer statistics, 2008. CA Cancer J Clin 58(2):71–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Jones MW, Kounelis S et al (2000) Well-differentiated villoglandular adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix: oncogene/tumor suppressor gene alterations and human papillomavirus genotyping. Int J Gynecol Pathol 19(2):110–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Jones MW, Lefkowitz M (1995) Adenosarcoma of the uterine cervix: a clinicopathological study of 12 cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol 14(3):223–229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Jones WB, Mercer GO et al (1993) Early invasive carcinoma of the cervix. Gynecol Oncol 51(1):26–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Jones WB, Shingleton HM et al (1996) Cervical carcinoma and pregnancy. A national patterns of care study of the American College of Surgeons. Cancer 77(8):1479–1488PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Jones MW, Silverberg SG et al (1993) Well-differentiated villoglandular adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix: a clinicopathological study of 24 cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol 12(1):1–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Jones MA, Young RH (1997) Atypical oxyphilic metaplasia of the endocervical epithelium: a report of six cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol 16(2):99–102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Kairi-Vassilatou E, Papakonstantinou K et al (2007) Primary gestational choriocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. Report of a case and review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Cancer 17(4):921–925PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Kaku T, Kamura T et al (1997) Early adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. Gynecol Oncol 65(2):281–285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Kaku T, Kamura T et al (1997) Adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix with predominantly villogladular papillary growth pattern. Gynecol Oncol 64(1):147–152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Kaminski PF, Maier RC (1983) Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the cervix unrelated to diethylstilbestrol exposure. Obstet Gynecol 62(6):720–727PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Kaminski PF, Norris HJ (1983) Minimal deviation carcinoma (adenoma malignum) of the cervix. Int J Gynecol Pathol 2(2):141–152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Kamoi S, AlJuboury MI et al (2002) Immunohistochemical staining in the distinction between primary endometrial and endocervical adenocarcinomas: another viewpoint. Int J Gynecol Pathol 21(3):217–223PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Kashimura M, Tsukamoto N et al (1984) Verrucous carcinoma of the uterine cervix: report of a case with follow-up of 6 1/2 years. Gynecol Oncol 19(2):204–215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Kaspar HG, Dinh TV et al (1993) Clinical implications of tumor volume measurement in stage I adenocarcinoma of the cervix. Obstet Gynecol 81(2):296–300PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Katz HJ, Davies JN (1980) Death from cervix uteri carcinoma: the changing pattern. Gynecol Oncol 9(1):86–89PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Kennedy AW, elTabbakh GH et al (1995) Invasive adenocarcinoma of the cervix following LLETZ (large loop excision of the transformation zone) for adenocarcinoma in situ. Gynecol Oncol 58(2):274–277PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Kerner H, Lichtig C (1993) Mullerian adenosarcoma presenting as cervical polyps: a report of seven cases and review of the literature. Obstet Gynecol 81(5 Pt 1):655–659PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Kersemaekers AM, Fleuren GJ et al (1999) Oncogene alterations in carcinomas of the uterine cervix: overexpression of the epidermal growth factor receptor is associated with poor prognosis. Clin Cancer Res 5(3):577–586PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Keys HM, Bundy BN et al (1999) Cisplatin, radiation, and adjuvant hysterectomy compared with radiation and adjuvant hysterectomy for bulky stage IB cervical carcinoma. N Engl J Med 340(15):1154–1161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Killackey MA, Jones WB et al (1986) Diagnostic conization of the cervix: review of 460 consecutive cases. Obstet Gynecol 67(6):766–770PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Kim GE, Kim YB et al (2004) Synchronous coexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor and cyclooxygenase-2 in carcinomas of the uterine cervix: a potential predictor of poor survival. Clin Cancer Res 10(4):1366–1374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Kim JY, Lim SJ et al (2005) Cyclooxygenase-2 and c-erbB-2 expression in uterine cervical neoplasm assessed using tissue microarrays. Gynecol Oncol 97(2):337–341PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Kim WY, Sharpless NE (2006) The regulation of INK4/ARF in cancer and aging. Cell 127(2):265–275PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Kjaer SK, Brinton LA (1993) Adenocarcinomas of the uterine cervix: the epidemiology of an increasing problem. Epidemiol Rev 15(2):486–498PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Koenig C, Turnicky RP et al (1997) Papillary squamotransitional cell carcinoma of the cervix: a report of 32 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 21(8):915–921PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Kolstad P (1989) Follow-up study of 232 patients with stage Ia1 and 411 patients with stage Ia2 squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix (microinvasive carcinoma). Gynecol Oncol 33(3):265–272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Korach J, Machtinger R et al (2009) Villoglandular papillary adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix: a diagnostic challenge. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 88(3):355–358PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Kristensen GB, Abeler VM et al (1999) Tumor size, depth of invasion, and grading of the invasive tumor front are the main prognostic factors in early squamous cell cervical carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 74(2):245–251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Kuzuya K (2004) Chemoradiotherapy for uterine cancer: current status and perspectives. Int J Clin Oncol 9(6):458–470PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Lacey JV Jr, Brinton LA et al (2000) Use of hormone replacement therapy and adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas of the uterine cervix. Gynecol Oncol 77(1):149–154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Lai CH, Chang CJ et al (2007) Role of human papillomavirus genotype in prognosis of early-stage cervical cancer undergoing primary surgery. J Clin Oncol 25(24):3628–3634PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Lax SF, Pizer ES et al (1998) Clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium is characterized by a distinctive profile of p53, Ki-67, estrogen, and progesterone receptor expression. Hum Pathol 29(6):551–558PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Ledda F, Bieraugel O et al (2008) Lrig1 is an endogenous inhibitor of Ret receptor tyrosine kinase activation, downstream signaling, and biological responses to GDNF. J Neurosci 28(1):39–49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Lee KR, Flynn CE (2000) Early invasive adenocarcinoma of the cervix. Cancer 89(5):1048–1055PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Lee SW, Kim YM et al (2009) The efficacy of conservative management after conization in patients with stage IA1 microinvasive cervical carcinoma. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 88(2):209–215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Leman MH Jr, Benson WL et al (1976) Microinvasive carcinoma of the cervix. Obstet Gynecol 48(5):571–578PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Leminen A, Paavonen J et al (1990) Adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. Cancer 65(1):53–59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Lemoine NR, Hall PA (1986) Epithelial tumors metastatic to the uterine cervix. A study of 33 cases and review of the literature. Cancer 57(10):2002–2005PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Lennerz JK, Perry A et al (2009) Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the cervix: another tumor with the t(11;19)-associated CRTC1-MAML2 gene fusion. Am J Surg Pathol 33(6):835–843PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Lesack D, Wahab I et al (1996) Radiation-induced atypia of endocervical epithelium: a histological, immunohistochemical and cytometric study. Int J Gynecol Pathol 15(3):242–247PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Lindell A (1952) Carcinoma of the uterine cervix; incidence and influence of age; a statistical study. Acta Radiol Suppl 92:1–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Lindstrom AK, Stendahl U et al (2007) Predicting the outcome of squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix using combinations of individual tumor marker expressions. Anticancer Res 27(3B):1609–1615PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Liu WM, Chao KC et al (1989) Colposcopic assessment in microinvasive carcinoma of the cervix. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi (Taipei) 43(3):171–176Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Loncaster JA, Cooper RA et al (2000) Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression is a prognostic factor for radiotherapy outcome in advanced carcinoma of the cervix. Br J Cancer 83(5):620–625PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Long HJ 3rd, Bundy BN et al (2005) Randomized phase III trial of cisplatin with or without topotecan in carcinoma of the uterine cervix: a Gynecologic Oncology Group Study. J Clin Oncol 23(21):4626–4633PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Lucas WE, Benirschke K et al (1974) Verrucous carcinoma of the female genital tract. Am J Obstet Gynecol 119(4):435–440PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Maiman MA, Fruchter RG et al (1988) Superficially invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Obstet Gynecol 72(3 Pt 1):399–403PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Malpica A, Moran CA (2002) Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the cervix: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of two cases. Ann Diagn Pathol 6(5):281–287PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Mannion C, Park WS et al (1998) Endocrine tumors of the cervix: morphologic assessment, expression of human papillomavirus, and evaluation for loss of heterozygosity on 1p, 3p, 11q, and 17p. Cancer 83(7):1391–1400PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Martinez-Leandro EP, Martorell M et al (1994) Lymphoepithelial-like carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Study of a case with in situ hybridization of the Epstein-Barr virus genome and the human papillomavirus genome. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 73(7):589–592PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Martorell MA, Julian JM et al (2002) Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Arch Pathol Lab Med 126(12):1501–1505PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Mathoulin-Portier MP, Penault-Llorca F et al (1998) Malignant mullerian mixed tumor of the uterine cervix with adenoid cystic component. Int J Gynecol Pathol 17(1):91–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Matias-Guiu X, Lerma E et al (1997) Clear cell tumors of the female genital tract. Semin Diagn Pathol 14(4):233–239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    McCluggage WG, Jenkins D (2003) p16 immunoreactivity may assist in the distinction between endometrial and endocervical adenocarcinoma. Int J Gynecol Pathol 22(3):231–235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    McCluggage WG, Sumathi VP et al (2002) A panel of immunohistochemical stains, including carcinoembryonic antigen, vimentin, and estrogen receptor, aids the distinction between primary endometrial and endocervical adenocarcinomas. Int J Gynecol Pathol 21(1):11–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Meanwell CA, Kelly KA et al (1988) Young age as a prognostic factor in cervical cancer: analysis of population based data from 10,022 cases. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 296(6619):386–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Mikami Y, Kiyokawa T et al (2004) Gastrointestinal immunophenotype in adenocarcinomas of the uterine cervix and related glandular lesions: a possible link between lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia/pyloric gland metaplasia and “adenoma malignum”. Mod Pathol 17(8):962–972PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Mikami Y, Kiyokawa T et al (2009) Reappraisal of synchronous and multifocal mucinous lesions of the female genital tract: a close association with gastric metaplasia. Histopathology 54(2):184–191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Mikuta JJ, Celebre JA (1969) Adenocarcinoma of the cervix. Obstet Gynecol 33(6):753–756PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Missaoui N, Hmissa S et al (2006) p16INK4A overexpression and HPV infection in uterine cervix adenocarcinoma. Virchows Arch 448(5):597–603PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Mobius G (1993) Cytological early detection of cervical carcinoma: possibilities and limitations. Analysis of failures. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 119(9):513–521PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Monk BJ, Sill MW et al (2009) Phase II trial of bevacizumab in the treatment of persistent or recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix: a gynecologic oncology group study. J Clin Oncol 27(7):1069–1074PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Monk BJ, Tewari KS et al (2007) Multimodality therapy for locally advanced cervical carcinoma: state of the art and future directions. J Clin Oncol 25(20):2952–2965PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Morgan PR, Anderson MC et al (1993) The Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists micro-invasive carcinoma of the cervix study: preliminary results. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 100(7):664–668PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Mota F (2003) Microinvasive squamous carcinoma of the cervix: treatment modalities. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 82(6):505–509PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Mulvany NJ, Nirenberg A et al (1996) Non-primary cervical adenocarcinomas. Pathology 28(4):293–297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Mulvany N, Ostor A (1997) Microinvasive adenocarcinoma of the cervix: a cytohistopathologic study of 40 cases. Diagn Cytopathol 16(5):430–436PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Munagala R, Dona MG et al (2009) Significance of multiple HPV infection in cervical cancer patients and its impact on treatment response. Int J Oncol 34(1):263–271PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Munoz N, Bosch FX et al (2003) Epidemiologic classification of human papillomavirus types associated with cervical cancer. N Engl J Med 348(6):518–527PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Munoz N, Castellsague X et al (2006) Chapter 1: HPV in the etiology of human cancer. Vaccine 24(S3):1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Murdoch JB, Grimshaw RN et al (1992) The impact of loop diathermy on management of early invasive cervical cancer. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2(3):129–133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Musa AG, Hughes RR et al (1985) Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the cervix: a report of 17 cases. Gynecol Oncol 22(2):167–173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Nagai T, Okubo T et al (2008) Glassy cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix responsive to neoadjuvant intraarterial chemotherapy. Int J Clin Oncol 13(6):541–544PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Nair SA, Nair MB et al (1997) The basement membrane and tumor progression in the uterine cervix. Gen Diagn Pathol 142(5–6):297–303PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Nakagawa S, Yoshikawa H et al (1996) Type of human papillomavirus is related to clinical features of cervical carcinoma. Cancer 78(9):1935–1941PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    National Cancer Institute (2006) SEER Fact Sheet Cervical Cancer. http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/cervix.html. Accessed 4 October 2010
  193. 193.
    Noel J, Lespagnard L et al (2001) Evidence of human papilloma virus infection but lack of Epstein-Barr virus in lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of uterine cervix: report of two cases and review of the literature. Hum Pathol 32(1):135–138PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Nogales F, Botella Llusia J (1965) The frequency of invasion of the lymph nodes in cancer of the uterine cervix. A study of the degree of extension in relation to the histological type of tumor. Am J Obstet Gynecol 93:91–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Ostor AG (2000) Early invasive adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. Int J Gynecol Pathol 19(1):29–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Ostor A, Rome R et al (1997) Microinvasive adenocarcinoma of the cervix: a clinicopathologic study of 77 women. Obstet Gynecol 89(1):88–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Pak HY, Yokota SB et al (1983) Glassy cell carcinoma of the cervix. Cytologic and clinicopathologic analysis. Cancer 52(2):307–312PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Pao CC, Kao SM et al (1994) State of mutational alterations of p53 and retinoblastoma susceptibility genes in papillomavirus-negative small cell cervical carcinomas. J Surg Oncol 57(2):87–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Pappa KI, Choleza M et al (2006) Consistent absence of BRAF mutations in cervical and endometrial cancer despite KRAS mutation status. Gynecol Oncol 100(3):596–600PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Paraskevaidis E, Kitchener HC et al (1992) A population-based study of microinvasive disease of the cervix–a colposcopic and cytologic analysis. Gynecol Oncol 45(1):9–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Parazzini F, Chatenoud L et al (1998) Determinants of risk of invasive cervical cancer in young women. Br J Cancer 77(5):838–841PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Park JY, Kim DY et al (2009) Human papillomavirus test after conization in predicting residual disease in subsequent hysterectomy specimens. Obstet Gynecol 114(1):87–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Parkin DM, Bray F et al (2005) Global cancer statistics, 2002. CA Cancer J Clin 55(2):74–108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Parwani AV, Smith Sehdev AE et al (2005) Cervical adenoid basal tumors comprised of adenoid basal epithelioma associated with various types of invasive carcinoma: clinicopathologic features, human papillomavirus DNA detection, and P16 expression. Hum Pathol 36(1):82–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Pecorelli S (2009) Revised FIGO staging for carcinoma of the vulva, cervix, and endometrium. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 105(2):103–104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Pecorelli S, Zigliani L et al (2009) Revised FIGO staging for carcinoma of the cervix. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 105(2):107–108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Perez-Regadera J, Sanchez-Munoz A et al (2009) Negative prognostic impact of the coexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor and c-erbB-2 in locally advanced cervical cancer. Oncology 76(2):133–141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Peters WA 3rd, Liu PY et al (2000) Concurrent chemotherapy and pelvic radiation therapy compared with pelvic radiation therapy alone as adjuvant therapy after radical surgery in high-risk early-stage cancer of the cervix. J Clin Oncol 18(8):1606–1613PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Pinto AP, Crum CP (2000) Natural history of cervical neoplasia: defining progression and its consequence. Clin Obstet Gynecol 43(2):352–362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Pirog EC, Kleter B et al (2000) Prevalence of human papillomavirus DNA in different histological subtypes of cervical adenocarcinoma. Am J Pathol 157(4):1055–1062PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Pisani P, Bray F et al (2002) Estimates of the world-wide prevalence of cancer for 25 sites in the adult population. Int J Cancer 97(1):72–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Poynor EA, Marshall D et al (2006) Clinicopathologic features of early adenocarcinoma of the cervix initially managed with cervical conization. Gynecol Oncol 103(3):960–965PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Prempree T, Villasanta U et al (1980) Management of adenoid cystic carcinoma of the uterine cervix (cylindroma): report of six cases and reappraisal of all cases reported in the medical literature. Cancer 46(7):1631–1635PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Pretorius R, Semrad N et al (1991) Presentation of cervical cancer. Gynecol Oncol 42(1):48–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Randall ME, Andersen WA et al (1986) Papillary squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix: a clinicopathologic study of nine cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol 5(1):1–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Reich O, Tamussino K et al (2000) Clear cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix: pathology and prognosis in surgically treated stage IB-IIB disease in women not exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol. Gynecol Oncol 76(3):331–335PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Richards CJ, Furness PN (1990) Basement membrane continuity in benign, premalignant and malignant epithelial conditions of the uterine cervix. Histopathology 16(1):47–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Robboy SJ, Young RH et al (1984) Atypical vaginal adenosis and cervical ectropion. Association with clear cell adenocarcinoma in diethylstilbestrol-exposed offspring. Cancer 54(5):869–875PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Roche WD, Norris HJ (1975) Microinvasive carcinoma of the cervix. The significance of lymphatic invasion and confluent patterns of stromal growth. Cancer 36(1):180–186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Ronnett BM, Yemelyanova AV et al (2008) Endocervical adenocarcinomas with ovarian metastases: analysis of 29 cases with emphasis on minimally invasive cervical tumors and the ability of the metastases to simulate primary ovarian neoplasms. Am J Surg Pathol 32(12):1835–1853PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Rosa DD, Medeiros LR et al (2009) Adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy for early stage cervical cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 3:CD005342Google Scholar
  222. 222.
    Rutledge FN, Mitchell MF et al (1992) Youth as a prognostic factor in carcinoma of the cervix: a matched analysis. Gynecol Oncol 44(2):123–130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Saigo PE, Cain JM et al (1986) Prognostic factors in adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. Cancer 57(8):1584–1593PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Samlal RA, Ten Kate FJ et al (1998) Do mucin-secreting squamous cell carcinomas of the uterine cervix metastasize more frequently to pelvic lymph nodes? A case-control study? Int J Gynecol Pathol 17(3):201–204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Samlal RA, van der Velden J et al (1997) Identification of high-risk groups among node-positive patients with stage IB and IIA cervical carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 64(3):463–467PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Saraiya M, Ahmed F et al (2007) Cervical cancer incidence in a prevaccine era in the United States, 1998–2002. Obstet Gynecol 109(2 Pt 1):360–370PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Savargaonkar PR, Hale RJ et al (1996) Neuroendocrine differentiation in cervical carcinoma. J Clin Pathol 49(2):139–141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Schiffman M, Castle PE et al (2007) Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer. Lancet 370(9590):890–907PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Schneider V (1981) Arias-stella reaction of the endocervix: frequency and location. Acta Cytol 25(3):224–228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Schorge JO, Lee KR et al (1999) Early cervical adenocarcinoma: selection criteria for radical surgery. Obstet Gynecol 94(3):386–390PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Schwartz SM, Daling JR et al (2001) Human papillomavirus and prognosis of invasive cervical cancer: a population-based study. J Clin Oncol 19(7):1906–1915PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Sedlis A, Sall S et al (1979) Microinvasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix: a clinical-pathologic study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 133(1):64–74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Seski JC, Abell MR et al (1977) Microinvasive squamous carcinoma of the cervix: definition, histologic analysis, late results of treatment. Obstet Gynecol 50(4):410–414PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Sevin BU, Nadji M et al (1992) Microinvasive carcinoma of the cervix. Cancer 70(8):2121–2128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Shah AN, Olah KS (2002) Cervical stump carcinoma following subtotal hysterectomy. J Obstet Gynaecol 22(6):701PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Shattuck DL, Miller JK et al (2007) LRIG1 is a novel negative regulator of the Met receptor and opposes Met and Her2 synergy. Mol Cell Biol 27(5):1934–1946PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Sheets EE, Berman ML et al (1988) Surgically treated, early-stage neuroendocrine small-cell cervical carcinoma. Obstet Gynecol 71(1):10–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Shingleton HM, Bell MC et al (1995) Is there really a difference in survival of women with squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and adenosquamous cell carcinoma of the cervix? Cancer 76(10 Suppl):1948–1955PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Shinohara S, Ochi T et al (2004) Histopathological prognostic factors in patients with cervical cancer treated with radical hysterectomy and postoperative radiotherapy. Int J Clin Oncol 9(6):503–509PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Silver SA, Devouassoux-Shisheboran M et al (2001) Mesonephric adenocarcinomas of the uterine cervix: a study of 11 cases with immunohistochemical findings. Am J Surg Pathol 25(3):379–387PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Silverberg SG, Hurt WG (1975) Minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (“adenoma malignum”) of the cervix: a reappraisal. Am J Obstet Gynecol 121(7):971–975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Simon NL, Gore H et al (1986) Study of superficially invasive carcinoma of the cervix. Obstet Gynecol 68(1):19–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Smith JS, Green J et al (2003) Cervical cancer and use of hormonal contraceptives: a systematic review. Lancet 361(9364):1159–1167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Smith HO, Qualls CR et al (2002) Is there a difference in survival for IA1 and IA2 adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix? Gynecol Oncol 85(2):229–241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Smith HO, Tiffany MF et al (2000) The rising incidence of adenocarcinoma relative to squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix in the United States–a 24-year population-based study. Gynecol Oncol 78(2):97–105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Snijders-Keilholz A, Ewing P et al (2005) Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the cervix uteri: a case report – changing concepts in therapy. Gynecol Oncol 98(3):516–519PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Staebler A, Sherman ME et al (2002) Hormone receptor immunohistochemistry and human papillomavirus in situ hybridization are useful for distinguishing endocervical and endometrial adenocarcinomas. Am J Surg Pathol 26(8):998–1006PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Subbaramaiah K, Dannenberg AJ (2007) Cyclooxygenase-2 transcription is regulated by human papillomavirus 16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins: evidence of a corepressor/coactivator exchange. Cancer Res 67(8):3976–3985PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Sullivan LM, Smolkin ME et al (2008) Comprehensive evaluation of CDX2 in invasive cervical adenocarcinomas: immunopositivity in the absence of overt colorectal morphology. Am J Surg Pathol 32(11):1608–1612PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Szczepulska E, Nasierowska-Guttmejer A et al (1999) Cervical verrucous carcinoma involving endometrium. Case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol 20(1):35–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Szurkus DC, Harrison TA (2003) Loop excision for high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion on cytology: correlation with colposcopic and histologic findings. Am J Obstet Gynecol 188(5):1180–1182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Takeda N, Sakuragi N et al (2002) Multivariate analysis of histopathologic prognostic factors for invasive cervical cancer treated with radical hysterectomy and systematic retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 81(12):1144–1151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Takeshima N, Yanoh K et al (1999) Assessment of the revised International Federation of Gynecology and obstetrics staging for early invasive squamous cervical cancer. Gynecol Oncol 74(2):165–169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Tambouret R, Bell DA et al (2000) Microcystic endocervical adenocarcinomas: a report of eight cases. Am J Surg Pathol 24(3):369–374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Tamimi HK, Ek M et al (1988) Glassy cell carcinoma of the cervix redefined. Obstet Gynecol 71(6 Pt 1):837–841PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Tenti P, Pavanello S et al (1998) Analysis and clinical implications of p53 gene mutations and human papillomavirus type 16 and 18 infection in primary adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. Am J Pathol 152(4):1057–1063PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Teshima S, Shimosato Y et al (1985) Early stage adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. Histopathologic analysis with consideration of histogenesis. Cancer 56(1):167–172PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Thelmo WL, Nicastri AD et al (1990) Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of uterine cervix stage IB. Long-term follow-up, histochemical and immunohistochemical study. Int J Gynecol Pathol 9(4):316–324PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Toki T, Shiozawa T et al (1997) Minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix has abnormal expression of sex steroid receptors, CA125, and gastric mucin. Int J Gynecol Pathol 16(2):111–116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Toussaint-Smith E, Donner DB et al (2004) Expression of human papillomavirus type 16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins in primary foreskin keratinocytes is sufficient to alter the expression of angiogenic factors. Oncogene 23(17):2988–2995PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Trottier H, Mahmud S et al (2006) Human papillomavirus infections with multiple types and risk of cervical neoplasia. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 15(7):1274–1280PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    Tseng CJ, Pao CC et al (1997) Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the uterine cervix: association with Epstein-Barr virus and human papillomavirus. Cancer 80(1):91–97PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    Tsukamoto N, Kaku T et al (1989) The problem of stage Ia (FIGO, 1985) carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Gynecol Oncol 34(1):1–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    Ueda Y, Miyatake T et al (2008) Clonality and HPV infection analysis of concurrent glandular and squamous lesions and adenosquamous carcinomas of the uterine cervix. Am J Clin Pathol 130(3):389–400PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    Ueda G, Shimizu C et al (1989) An immunohistochemical study of small-cell and poorly differentiated carcinomas of the cervix using neuroendocrine markers. Gynecol Oncol 34(2):164–169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    Ulbright TM, Gersell DJ (1983) Glassy cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. A light and electron microscopic study of five cases. Cancer 51(12):2255–2263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. 267.
    Van Nagell JR Jr, Greenwell N et al (1983) Microinvasive carcinoma of the cervix. Am J Obstet Gynecol 145(8):981–991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. 268.
    Vang R, Gown AM et al (2007) p16 expression in primary ovarian mucinous and endometrioid tumors and metastatic adenocarcinomas in the ovary: utility for identification of metastatic HPV-related endocervical adenocarcinomas. Am J Surg Pathol 31(5):653–663PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    Vesterinen E, Forss M et al (1989) Increase of cervical adenocarcinoma: a report of 520 cases of cervical carcinoma including 112 tumors with glandular elements. Gynecol Oncol 33(1):49–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. 270.
    Vinh-Hung V, Bourgain C et al (2007) Prognostic value of histopathology and trends in cervical cancer: a SEER population study. BMC Cancer 7:164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. 271.
    Vizcaino AP, Moreno V et al (1998) International trends in the incidence of cervical cancer: I. Adenocarcinoma and adenosquamous cell carcinomas. Int J Cancer 75(4):536–545PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    Walboomers JM, Jacobs MV et al (1999) Human papillomavirus is a necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer worldwide. J Pathol 189(1):12–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Walker AN, Mills SE et al (1988) Cervical neuroendocrine carcinoma: a clinical and light microscopic study of 14 cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol 7(1):64–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    Wang TY, Chen BF et al (2001) Histologic and immunophenotypic classification of cervical carcinomas by expression of the p53 homologue p63: a study of 250 cases. Hum Pathol 32(5):479–486PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    Wang HL, Lu DW (2004) Detection of human papillomavirus DNA and expression of p16, Rb, and p53 proteins in small cell carcinomas of the uterine cervix. Am J Surg Pathol 28(7):901–908PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    Wang SS, Sherman ME et al (2004) Cervical adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma incidence trends among white women and black women in the United States for 1976–2000. Cancer 100(5):1035–1044PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    Wang SS, Sherman ME et al (2006) Pathological characteristics of cervical adenocarcinoma in a multi-center US-based study. Gynecol Oncol 103(2):541–546PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    Wells M, Ostor AG et al (2002) Tumours of the uterine cervix. In: Tavassoli FA, Devilee P (eds) Tumors of the breast and female genital organs. IARC, Lyon, pp 260–286Google Scholar
  279. 279.
    Wentz WB, Reagan JW (1959) Survival in cervical cancer with respect to cell type. Cancer 12(2):384–388PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. 280.
    Wheeler CM (2008) Natural history of human papillomavirus infections, cytologic and histologic abnormalities, and cancer. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 35(4):519-36; viiGoogle Scholar
  281. 281.
    Wheeler DT, Kurman RJ (2005) The relationship of glands to thick-wall blood vessels as a marker of invasion in endocervical adenocarcinoma. Int J Gynecol Pathol 24(2):125–130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. 282.
    Wistuba II, Thomas B et al (1999) Molecular abnormalities associated with endocrine tumors of the uterine cervix. Gynecol Oncol 72(1):3–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. 283.
    Wolff JP, Lacour J et al (1972) Cancer of the cervical stump. Study of 173 patients. Obstet Gynecol 39(1):10–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. 284.
    Yahata T, Numata M et al (2008) Conservative treatment of stage IA1 adenocarcinoma of the cervix during pregnancy. Gynecol Oncol 109(1):49–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    Yajima A, Noda K (1979) The results of treatment of microinvasive carcinoma (stage iA) of the uterine cervix by means of simple and extended hysterectomy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 135(5):685–688PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. 286.
    Yang L, Parkin DM et al (2004) Estimation and projection of the national profile of cancer mortality in China: 1991–2005. Br J Cancer 90(11):2157–2166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. 287.
    Yazigi R, Sandstad J et al (1990) Adenosquamous carcinoma of the cervix: prognosis in stage IB. Obstet Gynecol 75(6):1012–1015PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. 288.
    Yemelyanova A, Ji H et al (2009) Utility of p16 expression for distinction of uterine serous carcinomas from endometrial endometrioid and endocervical adenocarcinomas: immunohistochemical analysis of 201 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 33(10):1504–1514PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. 289.
    Yemelyanova A, Vang R et al (2009) Endocervical adenocarcinomas with prominent endometrial or endomyometrial involvement simulating primary endometrial carcinomas: utility of HPV DNA detection and immunohistochemical expression of p16 and hormone receptors to confirm the cervical origin of the corpus tumor. Am J Surg Pathol 33(6):914–924PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. 290.
    Young RH, Clement PB (2002) Endocervical adenocarcinoma and its variants: their morphology and differential diagnosis. Histopathology 41(3):185–207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. 291.
    Young RH, Scully RE (1988) Mucinous ovarian tumors associated with mucinous adenocarcinomas of the cervix. A clinicopathological analysis of 16 cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol 7(2):99–111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. 292.
    Young RH, Scully RE (1989) Atypical forms of microglandular hyperplasia of the cervix simulating carcinoma. A report of five cases and review of the literature. Am J Surg Pathol 13(1):50–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. 293.
    Young RH, Scully RE (1993) Minimal-deviation endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. A report of five cases of a distinctive neoplasm that may be misinterpreted as benign. Am J Surg Pathol 17(7):660–665PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. 294.
    Young RH, Welch WR et al (1982) Ovarian sex cord tumor with annular tubules: review of 74 cases including 27 with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome and four with adenoma malignum of the cervix. Cancer 50(7):1384–1402PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. 295.
    Zaino RJ (2002) The fruits of our labors: distinguishing endometrial from endocervical adenocarcinoma. Int J Gynecol Pathol 21(1):1–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. 296.
    Zaino RJ (2002) Symposium part I: adenocarcinoma in situ, glandular dysplasia, and early invasive adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. Int J Gynecol Pathol 21(4):314–326PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. 297.
    Zaino RJ, Ward S et al (1992) Histopathologic predictors of the behavior of surgically treated stage IB squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. A Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Cancer 69(7):1750–1758PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. 298.
    Zannoni GF, Sioletic S et al (2008) The role of HPV detection and typing in diagnosis of pulmonary metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Histopathology 53(5):604–606PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. 299.
    Zbroch T, Grzegorz Knapp P et al (2005) Verrucous carcinoma of the cervix–diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties with regards to HPV status. Case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol 26(2):227–230PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. 300.
    Zhang SQ, Yu H et al (2009) Clinical implications of increased lymph vessel density in the lymphatic metastasis of early-stage invasive cervical carcinoma: a clinical immunohistochemical method study. BMC Cancer 9:64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. 301.
    Zheng T, Holford TR et al (1996) The continuing increase in adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix: a birth cohort phenomenon. Int J Epidemiol 25(2):252–258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. 302.
    Zhou C, Gilks CB et al (1998) Papillary serous carcinoma of the uterine cervix: a clinicopathologic study of 17 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 22(1):113–120PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. 303.
    Zivanovic O, Leitao MM Jr et al (2009) Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix: Analysis of outcome, recurrence pattern and the impact of platinum-based combination chemotherapy. Gynecol Oncol 112(3):590–593PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Agnieszka K. Witkiewicz
    • 1
  • Thomas C. Wright
    • 2
  • Alex Ferenczy
    • 3
  • Brigitte M. Ronnett
    • 4
  • Robert J. Kurman
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of PathologyThomas Jefferson UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Department of PathologyColumbia Presbyterian Medical CenterNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Jewish General HospitalMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada
  4. 4.Department of Pathology, Division of Gynecologic PathologyJohns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  5. 5.Departments of Gynecology, Obstetrics, Pathology and Oncology, Division of Gynecologic PathologyJohns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations