Historic Site and Historic Building Preservation: Overview
The buildings and historic sites of Western culture are preserved according to this culture’s own values or values added following arbitrary selection by each society. The theories, methods, and techniques for taking these decisions arose with the Enlightenment and have varied over time and regions. After a peak in autonomy and growth in the twentieth century, a process has now arisen to homogenize meanings and preservation methods as part of the process of globalization. In particular, toward the end of the twentieth century, criteria were unified under the Venice Charter of 1964 (ICOMOS 1964), based on previous agreements articulated in the Athens Charter of 1931 (CIAM 1931), bringing about the creation of international bodies and universal standards, albeit respecting regional variants (Page & Mason 2004). As a result, local concepts of historical value have been lost in favor of more general ones acceptable to Western tourists and heritage professionals (e.g., De...
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