Gondwanaland or “Gondwana” is the name for the southern half of the Pangaean supercontinent that existed some 300 million years ago. Gondwanaland is composed of the major continental blocks of South America, Africa, Arabia, Madagascar, Sri Lanka, India, Antarctica, and Australia (Figure 1). The name “Gondwana” is derived from a tribe in India (Gonds) and “wana” meaning “land of.” Gondwanaland is superficially divided into a western half (Africa and South America) and an eastern half (India, Sri Lanka, Madagascar, Antarctica, and Australia).
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