Encyclopedia of Geobiology

Editors: Joachim Reitner, Volker Thiel

Gondwanaland, Formation

  • Joseph G. Meert
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-9212-1_92

Definition

Gondwanaland or “Gondwana” is the name for the southern half of the Pangaean supercontinent that existed some 300 million years ago. Gondwanaland is composed of the major continental blocks of South America, Africa, Arabia, Madagascar, Sri Lanka, India, Antarctica, and Australia (Figure 1). The name “Gondwana” is derived from a tribe in India (Gonds) and “wana” meaning “land of.” Gondwanaland is superficially divided into a western half (Africa and South America) and an eastern half (India, Sri Lanka, Madagascar, Antarctica, and Australia).
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access

Bibliography

  1. Collins, A. S., and Pisarevsky, S. A., 2005. Amalgamating eastern Gondwana: the evolution of the circum-Indian orogens. Earth Science Reviews, 71, 229–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Dalziel, I. W. D., 1991. Pacific margins of Laurentia and East Antarctica as a conjugate rift pair: evidence and implications for an Eocambrian supercontinent. Geology, 19, 598–601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Fitzsimons, I. C. W., 2000. A review of tectonic events in the East Antarctic Shield, and their implications for three separate collisional orogens. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 31, 3–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Hoffman, P. F., 1991. Did the breakout of Laurentia turn Gondwanaland inside out? Science, 252, 1409–1412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Hoffman, P. F., Kaufman, A. J., Halverson, G. P., and Schrag, D. P., 1998. A Neoproterozoic snowball Earth. Science, 281, 1342–1346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Kelsey, D. E., Wade, D. P., Collins, A. S., Hand, M., Sealing, C. R., and Netting, A., 2008. Discovery of a Neoproterozoic basin in the Prydz Belt in East Antarctica and its implications for Gondwana assembly and ultrahigh temperature metamorphism. Precambrian Research, 161, 355–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Meert, J. G., 2003. A synopsis of events related to the assembly of eastern Gondwana. Tectonphysics, 362, 1–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Meert, J. G., and Lieberman, B. S., 2008. The Neoproterozoic assembly of Gondwana and its relationship to the Ediacaran–Cambrian radiation. Gondwana Research, in press.Google Scholar
  9. Meert, J. G., and Torsvik, T. H., 2003. The making and unmaking of a supercontinent: Rodinia revisited. Tectonophysics, 375, 261–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Meert, J. G., Van der Voo, R., and Ayub, S., 1995. Paleomagnetic investigation of the neoproterozoic Gagwe lavas and Mbozi Complex, Tanzania and the assembly of Gondwana. Precambrian Research, 74, 225–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Moores, E. M., 1991. Southwest U.S.-East Antarctic (SWEAT) connection: a hypothesis. Geology, 19, 425–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Squire, R. J., Campbell, I. H., Allen, C. M., and Wilson, C. J. L., 2006. Did the Transgondwanan supermountain trigger the explosive radiation of animals on Earth? Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 250, 116–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Stern, R. J., 1994. Arc assembly and continental collision in the Neoproterozoic East Africa Orogen: implications for the consolidation of Gondwanaland. Annual Reviews of Earth and Planetary Science, 22, 319–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Yoshida, M., 2007. Geochronological data evaluation: implications for the Proterozoic tectonics of East Gondwana. Gondwana Research, 12, 228–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph G. Meert
    • 1
  1. 1.Geological SciencesUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA