Bacteria living of sulfur compounds.
The term thiotrophic is derived from Greek and translates to sulfur nourishment, meaning that thiotrophic bacteria live on sulfide or other reduced sulfur compounds. Traditionally, these bacteria are often called sulfur bacteria because some of them can be recognized as sulfide oxidizers in the microscope, as they store elemental sulfur within the cells or excrete elemental sulfur into the medium. Microbiologists distinguish between colorless sulfur bacteria and green and purple sulfur bacteria , the latter two being phototrophs, which use sulfide as electron donator for anoxygenic photosynthesis (Robertson and Kuenen, 2006). The purple and green sulfur bacteria are generally not called thiotrophic because they gain energy by photosynthesis and are thus classified as phototrophic, even though sulfide is required for this process. Free-living, sulfide oxidizing bacteria are, out of tradition, still...
KeywordsHydrothermal Vent Sulfide Oxidation Green Sulfur Bacterium Acidithiobacillus Ferrooxidans Purple Sulfur Bacterium
- Cavanaugh, C. M., Mckiness, Z. P., Newton, L. G., and Stewart, F. J., 2006. Marine chemosynthetic symbioses. In Dworkin, M., Falkow, S., Rosenberg, E., Schleifer, K.-H., and Stackebrandt, E. (ed.), The Prokaryotes. A Handbook on the Biology of Bacteria. New York: Springer, pp. 985–1011.Google Scholar
- Jørgensen, B. B., and Bak, F., 1991. Pathways and microbiology of thiosulfate transformations and sulfate reduction in a marine sediment (Kattegat Denmark). Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 57, 847–856.Google Scholar
- Laue, B. E., and Nelson, D. C., 1997. Sulfur-oxidizing symbionts have not co-evolved with their hydrothermal vent tube worm hosts: an RFLP analysis. Molecular Marine Biology and Biotechnology, 6, 180–188.Google Scholar
- Robertson, L. A., and Kuenen, J. G., 2006. The colorless sulfur bacteria. In Dworkin, M., Falkow, S., Rosenberg, E., Schleifer, K.-H., and Stackebrandt, E. (eds.), The Prokaryotes. A Handbook on the Biology of Bacteria. New York: Springer, pp. 985–1011.Google Scholar
- Sievert, S. M., Keine, R. P., and Schulz-Vogt, H. N., 2007. Microbes and major elemental cycles – the sulfur cycle. In Karl, D. M., and Proctor, L. M. (eds.), A Sea of Microbes, Oceanography, 20, 117–123.Google Scholar
- Wirsen, C. O., Sievert, S. M., Cavanaugh, C. M., Molyneaux, S. J., Ahmad, A., Taylor, L. T., DeLong, E. F., and Taylor, C. D., 2002. Characterization of an autotrophic sulfide-oxidizing marine Arcobacter sp that produces filamentous sulfur. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 68, 316–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar