Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND)
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An umbrella composed of several different militant groups operating within the Niger Delta, MEND may be seen as paradigmatic of certain core features of contemporary struggles for global justice and, in particular, the emergence of global publics and transnational, or multileveled, democratic activism. Indeed, along with other groups such as the Zapatistas in Chiapas, MEND exemplifies the ability of groups engaged in local justice struggles to initiate contestatory deliberation and normative change across multiple levels of governance, below and above the level of the nation state. In this respect, the justice struggles undertaken by MEND are firmly grounded in the recognition that local governance issues are often already transnational in character.
Indeed, the local environmental justice concerns of the Ogoni people regarding the impacts of “open top” oil drilling in the Niger Delta extend well beyond engagement with governance mechanisms within the Delta alone. Their concerns engage...
- Dryzek JS (2006) Deliberative global politics. Polity, CambridgeGoogle Scholar