Encyclopedia of Sciences and Religions

2013 Edition
| Editors: Anne L. C. Runehov, Lluis Oviedo


  • Samaneh PourjalaliEmail author
  • James C. Kaufman
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-8265-8_587

Related Terms


Intelligence and the various methods by which it is assessed have progressively evolved during the past 150 years. A brief overview of the contributions of intelligence theorists and researchers speaks of the influence of these scientists on the current understanding of intelligence and its recent developments. An early intelligence researcher, Binet, believed that intelligence was comprised of comprehension, inventiveness, direction, and criticism. In 1927, Spearman suggested that intelligence could be divided into a general factor, pervading all types of intellectual practice, and specific factors, which involve specific tasks (Spearman 1927). The idea of one unifying factor representing intelligence across all domains...

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychology, Learning Research InstituteCalifornia State University at San BernardinoSan BernardinoUSA