Paternal Leakage

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-6754-9_12390

The transmission of mitochondrial DNA through the males. Generally, mitochondria are not transmitted through the animal sperm because mitochondrial DNA of spermatozoon is destroyed by ubiquitination in the oocytes (Sutovsky P et al 2000 Biol Reprod 63:582). In mice, apparently the male transmission of mitochondria is within the range of 10−5. In interspecific mouse crosses, paternal mitochondria are transmitted but they are eliminated during early embryogenesis or later during development (Kaneda H et al 1995 Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92:4542). Heteroplasmy is rare. The role of transmission of mitochondria in humans is not clear. Some cytological observations may indicate the incorporation of the midpiece of the sperm (containing mitochondria) into the egg. Genetic evidence for human paternal transmission of mitochondria is rare (Schwartz M, Vissing J 2002 N Engl J Med 347:576).

In some molluscans (mussel), there is a strong biparental inheritance of mtDNA. In Mytilusthe paternal and...

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