Encyclopedia of Entomology

2008 Edition
| Editors: John L. Capinera

Black Flies Attacking Livestock: Simulium arcticum Malloch and Simulium luggeri Nicholson & Mickel (Diptera: Simuliidae)

  • Peter G. Mason
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-6359-6_362

The livestock-attacking black flies, Simulium arcticum Malloch and Simulium luggeri Nicholson & Mickel, are important pests of cattle and wild ungulates in the northern great plains of Canada. Other black fly species are pests of vertebrates including humans in other parts of the world. Females of S. arcticum and S. luggeri are greyish or brownish with the dorsum of the thorax uniformly colored. They differ in appearance (the coloration of the tibia of the hind leg is entirely dark in S. luggeri, but the basal half is white in S. arcticum), and features of the genitalia.

Damage

Economic losses occur due to the massive attacks by female black flies seeking a bloodmeal needed for production of eggs. Dispersal in search of hosts may be 150 km from the rivers where emergence and oviposition take place. In parts of Saskatchewan and Alberta, black flies are limiting to cattle production. Cattle harassed by attacking black flies become frightened and bunch together to escape the blood-seeking...

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References

  1. Crosskey RW (1990) Natural history of black flies. British Museum of Natural History, London, UK, 722 ppGoogle Scholar
  2. Kim KC, Merritt RW (eds) (1987) Black flies: Ecology, population management and annotated world list. The Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park, PA, 528 ppGoogle Scholar
  3. Laird M (ed) (1981) Blackflies: The future for biological methods in integrated control. Academic Press, London, UK, 399 ppGoogle Scholar
  4. Mason PG, Shemanchuk JA (1990) Black flies. Agriculture Canada Publication 1499/E, Minister of Supply and Service Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, 8 ppGoogle Scholar
  5. Mason PG, Boisvert M, Boisvert J, Colbo MH (2001) Simulium spp., black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae). In: Mason PG, Huber JT (eds) Biological control programmes in Canada 1981–2000. CABI Publishers, Wallingford, UK, pp 230–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter G. Mason
    • 1
  1. 1.Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research CentreOttawaCanada