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Logic

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It is believed in the West that logic began with Aristotle and that logic is universal. The core of Western thought – including present‐day formal mathematics and the philosophy of science – is premised on the belief that logical truths are universal, that they are necessary truths, and that logical deduction is certain and infallible. These beliefs about logic, however, are untenable, both historically and philosophically, in a larger picture which takes the rest of the world into account.

Philosophically, present‐day formal logic, like the twelfth century BCE text, Organon, attributed to Aristotle, supposes that deduction relates to two‐valued logic. In such a logic, an affirmation A conjoined with its negation (∼A) makes a contradictory pair, from which any conclusion B whatsoever can be validly inferred by the rule of inference known as reductio ad absurdum: (A ∧ ∼AB), to put it symbolically, with “∼” denoting “not,” “∧” denoting “and,” and “⇒” denoting the usual (material)...

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References

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Raju, C.K. (2008). Logic. In: Selin, H. (eds) Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-4425-0_8706

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