Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE)
The OSCE is a pan-European security organization of 57 participating states. It has been recognized under the UN Charter as a primary instrument in its region for early warning, conflict prevention, crisis management and post-conflict rehabilitation.
Origin. Initiatives from both NATO and the Warsaw Pact culminated in the first summit Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE) attended by heads of state and government in Helsinki on 30 July–1 Aug. 1975. It adopted the Helsinki Final Act laying down ten principles governing the behaviour of States towards their citizens and each other, concerning human rights, self-determination and the interrelations of the participant states. The CSCE was to serve as a multilateral forum for dialogue and negotiations between East and West.
The Helsinki Final Actcomprised three main sections: 1) politico-military aspects of security: principles guiding relations between and among participating States and military confidence-building...