The Springer Index of Viruses

2011 Edition
| Editors: Christian Tidona, Gholamreza Darai

Gammacoronavirus

Coronaviridae
  • Nicola DecaroEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-95919-1_58
  • 213 Downloads

Virion

Morphology:

Spherical

Envelope:

Yes

Diameter (nm):

120–160

Length (nm):

 

Structural components:

Nucleocapsid, core, envelope

Buoyant density (g/mL):

1.23–1.24

Buoyant density method:

CsCl

Lipid composition:

Envelope lipids are derived from cytoplasma membrane of host cell

Additional information:

Surface projections made by the spike (S) protein

Genome

Nucleic acid:

RNA

Strandedness:

 

Polarity:

 

Configuration:

 

Segment organization:

Segment no. 1 (kb):

26.4–31.7

One segment(s):

26.4–31.7 (kb) total (calculated)

G + C content (%):

37.6–41.8

mRNA transcripts:

7–10

Open reading frames:

7–10

Additional information:

The genome contains a leader at the 5′ end and a poly(A) tail; genes are arranged in the order 5′-replicase-S-E-M-N-3′, with a variable number of other genes that are believed to be non-structural

Replication

Entry mechanism:

Receptor-mediated endocytosis

Site of transcription:

Cytoplasm

Transcriptase:

Virus-encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase

Site of genome replication:

Cytoplasm

Replicase:

Virus-encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase

Replication intermediate:

Negative-strand RNA intermediate

Site of virion assembly:

Cytoplasm, the intermediate compartment

Egress mechanism:

Budding through the pre-Golgi and Golgi

Additional information:

Only the membrane (M) and envelope (E) proteins are required for the production of virus-like particles (VLPs)

History

Year of event

Event

References

1930

First report of infectious bronchitis in poultry in North Dakota

Schalk AE, Hawn MC (1931) J Am Vet Med Assoc 78:413–422

1936

First demonstration of a coronavirus disease, infectious bronchitis (IB), in domestic fowl

Beach JR, Schalm OW (1936) Poult Sci 15:199–206

1937

First cultivation of infectious bronchitis virus in chick embryos

Beaudette ER, Hudson CB (1937) J Am Vet Med Assoc 90:51–58

1949

“Stunting and curling” in chick embryos is an IB pathognomonic lesion

Fabricant J (1951) Cornell Vet 39:414–431

1973

Coronavirus-like (turkey coronavirus, TuCoV) particles identified by electron microscopy in turkeys with bluecomb disease

Ritchie JM et al (1973)

1975

ICTV approves Coronaviridae family with one genus, Coronavirus

Tyrrell DAJ et al (1975)

1977

Coronavirus (IBV) RNA shown to be infectious

Lomniczi B (1977)

1980

Coronavirus (IBV) subgenomic mRNAs form a 3′coterminal nested set

Stern DI, Kennedy SI (1980)

1987

First report on a coronavirus genome (IBV) complete sequence.

Boursnell MEG et al (1987)

1987

Frameshift in translation of replicase gene experimentally demonstrated in vitro

Brierley AS et al (2000)

1996

An IBV-related coronavirus is isolated from pheasants

Gough AE et al (1996)

1996

ICTV recognises Coronaviridae as containing two genera: Coronavirus and Torovirus

Cavanagh JG et al (1997)

1996

ICTV recognises the order Nidovirales containing families Coronaviridae and Arteriviridae

Cavanagh JG et al (1997)

2005

Design of wide-spectrum inhibitors of coronavirus main protease

Yang Y et al (2005)

2008

Identification of a novel coronavirus (beluga whale coronavirus, BWCoV) from a beluga whale

Mihindukulasuriya KA et al (2008)

2009

ICTV recognises the family Coronaviridae as containing two subfamilies, Coronavirinae and Torovirinae, with the former including three genera

Carstens K et al (2010)

2009

According to the new taxonomy, genus Coronavirus is replaced by genera Alpha-, Beta- and Gammacoronavirus, corresponding to the old antigenic groups

Carstens K (2010)

2009

IBV, TuCoV, PhCoV, BWCoV and related viruses are recognised as host variants of a unique species, Avian coronavirus, of the genus Betacoronavirus

Carstens K (2010)

2009

Identification in wild birds of new putative members of the genus Gammacoronavirus

Woo J et al (2009)

Genus Members

Species name

Synonyms

Wild-type strains/isolates

Natural host range

Experimental host range

Membership status

Avian coronavirus

Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV); Turkey coronavirus (TuCoV); Pheasant coronavirus (PhCoV); Duck coronavirus (DuCoV); Goose coronavirus (GoCoV); Pigeon coronavirus (PgCoV); Quail coronavirus (QCoV)

IBV:Massachusetts M41;4/91;H; TuCoV:Minnesota; PhCoV:ph/UK/6/99; PgCoV:03/653; QCoV:Italy/Elvia/2005

Domestic fowl, turkeys, other domestic birds

Quail, gulls, suckling mice (IBV); chicken (TuCoV)

Type species

Beluga Whale coronavirus SW1 (BWCoV-SW1)

 

SW1

Beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas)

 

Approved member

Asian leopard cat coronavirus (ALCCoV)

 

Guangxi/F230/2006

Asian leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis)

 

Tentative member

Black-headed gull coronavirus

 

CIR-66152; CIR-66146; CIR-66187; CIR-66185

Black-headed gull (Chroicocephalus ridibundus)

 

Tentative member

Brent goose coronavirus

 

KR-70

Russian Brent goose (Branta bernicla)

 

Tentative member

Bulbul coronavirus HKU11 (BuCoV-HKU11)

 

796; 934

Bulbuls (Pycnonotus jocosus)

 

Tentative member

Chinese ferret badger coronavirus Guanxi/2006 (CFBCoV-Guanxi/2006)

 

Guangxi/F247/2006; Guangxi/F250/2006

Chinese ferret badgers (Melogale moschata)

 

Tentative member

Glaucous gull coronavirus

 

PBA-173

Glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus)

 

Tentative member

Glaucous-winged gull coronavirus

 

CIR-66002

Glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens)

 

Tentative member

Munia coronavirus HKU13 (Munia coronavirus HKU13)

 

3514

3,514

 

Tentative member

Pintail coronavirus PBA-124

 

10; 15; 25; PBA-124

Pintail (Anas acuta)

 

Tentative member

Rock sandpiper coronavirus

 

CIR-65885; CIR-65828; CIR-65824; CIR-665821

Rock sandpiper (Calidris ptilocnemis)

 

Tentative member

Snow goose coronavirus

 

WIR-159

Snow goose coronavirus (Anser caerulescens)

 

Tentative member

Thrush coronavirus HKU12 (ThCoV-HKU12)

 

600

Thrushes (Turdus hortulorum, Turdus merula)

 

Tentative member

Western sandpiper coronavirus

 

KR-28

Western sandpiper (Calidris mauri)

 

Tentative member

Nucleotide Sequences

Genomic region

Species

Strain

Nucleotides

Access number

References

Complete genome

Avian coronavirus (IBV)

Beaudette

27,608

M95169

Boursnell ME et al (1987)

Complete genome

Avian coronavirus (TuCoV)

TuCoV-540

27,771

EU022525

Cao R et al (2008)

Complete genome

BuCoV-HKU11

796

26,476

FJ376620

Woo J et al (2009)

Complete genome

ThCoV-HKU12

600

26,396

NC_011549

Woo J et al (2009)

Complete genome

MuCoV-HKU13

3514

26,552

NC_011550

Woo J et al (2009)

Complete genome

BWCoV-SW1

SW1

31,686

NC_010646

Mihindukulasuriya KA et al (2008)

Genomic very 3′ end

Avian coronavirus (PhCoV)

ph/UK/602/95

443

AJ619604

Cavanagh PR et al (2002)

Replicase (partial)

Avian coronavirus (QCoV)

Italy/Elvia/2005

429

EF446156

Circella M et al (2007)

Replicase (partial)

Avian coronavirus (PgCoV)

03/428-1

208

AJ854131

Jonassen CM et al (2005)

Replicase (partial)

Avian coronavirus (GCoV)

03/586-1

208

AJ854114

Jonassen CM et al (2005)

replicase (partial)

Avian coronavirus (DCoV)

03/1094

208

AJ8541

Jonassen CM et al (2005)

Genomic 3′ end

ALCCoV

Guangxi/F230/2006

12,801

EF584908

Dong PD et al (2007)

Replicase (partial)

CBFCoV-Guanxi/2006

Guangxi/F247/2006

1,179

EF584909

Dong PD et al (2007)

Replicase (partial)

Snow goose coronavirus

WIR-159

561

GU396690

Muradrasoli S et al (2010)

Replicase (partial)

Rock sandpiper coronavirus

CIR-65885

562

GU396689

Muradrasoli, et al (2010)

Replicase (partial)

Black-headed gull coronavirus

CIR-66152

562

GU396686

Muradrasoli S et al (2010)

Replicase (partial)

Glaucous-winged gull coronavirus

CIR-66002

562

GU396682

Muradrasoli S et al (2010)

Replicase (partial)

Glaucous gull coronavirus

PBA-173

541

GU396674

Muradrasoli, et al (2010)

Replicase (partial)

Brent goose coronavirus

KR-70

531

GU396676

Muradrasoli S et al (2010)

Replicase (partial)

Western sandpiper coronavirus

KR-28

535

GU396675

Muradrasoli S et al (2010)

Replicase (partial)

Pintail coronavirus

PBA-124

542

GU396673

Muradrasoli S et al (2010)

Proteins

Protein name

Protein name abbreviation

Number of amino acids

Molecular weight (kDa)

Time of expression

Accession numbers

Additional information

Polyprotein 1ab (replicase complex)

pp1ab

6262–6663

740–800

Throughout

NP_066134; ACH72792; YP_001941164; ACJ12052; ACJ12043; ACJ12061; YP_001876435

Encoded by two ORFs, 1a and 1b; pseudoknot involved in frameshifting; cleaved to several products, including an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase

Spike glycoprotein

S

1156–1472

150–220

Throughout

ADC79651; ABF61518; YP_001941166; YP_001876437; ACJ12044; YP_002308506; YP_002308497

Highly glycosylated; forms homotrimers; cleaved to S1 and S2 subunits in some members

Membrane protein

M

217–260

217–264

Throughout

ACD93207; ACZ17397; AAF35863; YP_001941170; YP_002308508; YP_002308499; ACJ12046; YP_001876439

N-linked or O-linked glycans; triple-spanning

Envelope protein

E

82–110

9–12

Throughout

CAZ86711; CAZ86702; ADQ57408; ABW81430; YP_002308498; ACJ12045; YP_002308507; ABQ39959; YP_001876438

Essential for virion assembly; E plus M forms virus-like particles

Nucleocapsid protein

N

343–417

50–60

Throughout

AAB24054; AAB48157; AAV88459; AAF23873; CAI40312; ACJ12057; ACJ12048; ACJ12066; ABW87831

Highly basic phosphoprotein; forms a helical nucleocapsid

IBV non-structural protein 3a

IBVns3a

57–61

6.7

Throughout

AAT70773; CAA42115; ABW81428; ACC60267

Unique to Avian coronavirus; absent in some strains; not essential for replication

IBV non-structural protein 3b

IBVns3b

62–72

7.4

Throughout

AAT70774; CAA42488; CAA43123; ABQ84824; ACV87274; ACV87252

Unique to Avian coronavirus; not essential for replication

IBV non-structural protein 5a

IBVns5a

65

7.4

Throughout

AAA70240; NP_040836; ABW75145; ACV87248; CAF22050

Unique to Avian coronavirus; not essential for replication

IBV non-structural protein 5b

IBVns5b

80–90

9.5

Throughout

ABG36793; ABQ84764; ABQ84859; ACC60264; ACV87269

Unique to Avian coronavirus; not essential for replication

MuCoV/BuCoV/ThCoV non-structural protein 6

MuCoV/BuCoV/ThCoV ns6

91–108

10.3–12.2

 

YP_002308500; ACJ12047; YP_002308509

Putative accessory protein unique to MuCoV/BuCoV/ThCoV; gene located between M and N genes

MuCoV/BuCoV/ThCoV non-structural protein 7a

MuCoV/BuCoV/ThCoV ns7a

123

13.8

 

ACJ12040; YP_002308502; YP_002308511

putative accessory protein unique to MuCoV/BuCoV/ThCoV; gene located downstream of N gene

MuCoV/BuCoV/ThCoV non-structural protein 7b

MuCoV/BuCoV/ThCoV ns7b

83–85

9.1–9.3

 

ACJ12041; YP_002308503; YP_002308512

Putative accessory protein unique to MuCoV/BuCoV/ThCoV; gene located downstream of N gene

MuCoV/BuCoV/ThCoV non-structural protein 7c

MuCoV/BuCoV/ThCoV ns7C

77–94

9.1–11.2

 

ACJ12042; YP_002308513; YP_002308504

Putative accessory protein unique to MuCoV/BuCoV/ThCoV; gene located downstream of N gene

BWCoV-SW1 non-structural protein 5a

BWCoV-SW1 ns5a

138

15.6

 

YP_001876440

Putative accessory protein unique to BWCoV-SW1; gene located between M and N genes

BWCoV-SW1 non-structural protein 5b

BWCoV-SW1 ns5b

172

19.4

 

YP_001876441

Putative accessory protein unique to BWCoV-SW1; gene located between M and N genes

BWCoV-SW1 non-structural protein 5c

BWCoV-SW1 ns5c

175

20.1

 

YP_001876442

Putative accessory protein unique to BWCoV-SW1; gene located between M and N genes

BWCoV-SW1 non-structural protein 6

BWCoV-SW1 ns6

228

25.3

 

YP_001876443

Putative accessory protein unique to BWCoV-SW1; gene located between M and N genes

BWCoV-SW1 non-structural protein 7

BWCoV-SW1 ns7

161

18.4

 

YP_001876444

putative accessory protein unique to BWCoV-SW1; gene located between M and N genes

BWCoV-SW1 non-structural protein 8

BWCoV-SW1 ns8

59

6.8

 

YP_001876445

Putative accessory protein unique to BWCoV-SW1; gene located between M and N genes

BWCoV-SW1 non-structural protein 9

BWCoV-SW1 ns9

152

17.3

 

YP_001876446

Putative accessory protein unique to BWCoV-SW1; gene located between M and N genes

BWCoV-SW1 non-structural protein 10

BWCoV-SW1 ns10

210

23.7

 

YP_001876447

Putative accessory protein unique to BWCoV-SW1; gene located between M and N genes

Biology

Species

Permissive cell lines

Tissue tropism

Cytopathic effects

Additional information

Avian coronavirus (IBV)

Chicken eggs and kidney cells; Vero (Beaudette strain)

Respiratory epithelium; also kidney, oviduct, gut

Embryonic stunting/curling (egg); syncytia (cells)

Can cause viral persistence; some strains highly nephropathogenic; some strains haemagglutinating

Avian coronavirus (TuCoV)

Embryonated turkey and chicken eggs

Intestinal epithelium, bursa of Fabricius

Embryonic stunting/curling

Amniotic inoculation is required

Avian coronavirus (PhCoV)

Embryonated chicken eggs

Respiratory tissues and kidneys

Embryonic stunting/curling

Allantoic route inoculation

Diseases

Disease

Causative agent

Affected organisms

Disease CHARACTERISTICS

Transmission route/vector

Treatment

Geographic distribution

Infectious bronchitis of poultry

Avian coronavirus (IBV)

Chickens

Sneezing, coughing; nephritis; declined egg production

Aerosol

No specific treatment

World-wide

Bluecomb disease, mud fever

Avian coronavirus (TuCoV)

Turkeys

Enteritis, wet droppings, depression

Faecal-oral

No specific treatment

World-wide

Pheasant respiratory and kidney disease

Avian coronavirus (PhCoV)

Pheasants

Rapid death, sneezing, poor hatchability, small size, variable color-pale buff to greenish brown

Aerosol

No specific treatment

World-wide

Diagnosis

Method

Species

Sample material

Detection target

References

Electron microscopy

Avian coronavirus (IBV, TuCoV, PhCoV)

Respiratory and/or cloacal specimens, kidneys

Particle morphology

Reagan RL et al (1948)

Cultivation in embryonated chicken eggs

Avian coronavirus (IBV, TuCoV, PhCoV)

Respiratory and/or cloacal specimens, kidneys

Embryonic alterations (stunting and curling)

Cunningham CH, Stuart HO (1947)

Agar gel precipitin test

Avian coronavirus (IBV, TuCoV, PhCoV)

Respiratory and/or cloacal specimens, kidneys

Viral antigens

Lohr M (1981)

Immunofluorescence assay

Avian coronavirus (IBV, TuCoV, PhCoV)

Tracheal, intestinal, renal sections

Viral antigens

Yagyu K, Ohta S (1990)

Immunoperoxidase assay

Avian coronavirus (IBV, TuCoV, PhCoV)

Tracheal, intestinal, renal sections

Viral antigens

Naqi S (1990)

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with monoclonal antibodies

Avian coronavirus (IBV, TuCoV, PhCoV)

Respiratory and/or cloacal specimens, kidneys

Viral antigens

Naqi S et al (1993)

RT-PCR amplification of the spike-protein gene

Avian coronavirus (IBV, TuCoV, PhCoV)

Respiratory and/or cloacal specimens, kidneys

Viral rna

Lin J et al (1991)

Nested RT-PCR amplification of the nucleocapsid-protein gene

Avian coronavirus (IBV, TuCoV, PhCoV)

Respiratory and/or cloacal specimens, kidneys

Viral rna

Falcone DJ et al (1997)

Real-time RT-PCR amplification of the 5′-UTR

Avian coronavirus (IBV, TuCoV, PhCoV)

Respiratory and/or cloacal specimens, kidneys

Viral rna

Callison B et al (2006)

Real-time polymerase chain reaction/high-resolution melt curve analysis for IBV strain differentiation

Avian coronavirus (IBV)

Respiratory and/or cloacal specimens, kidneys

Viral rna

Hewson I et al (2010)

Vaccine Strains

Strain

Attenuation process

Additional information

References

Avian coronavirus IBV many strains

Inactivated vacciness

Poor effective

Cavanagh D (2007)

Avian coronavirus IBV many strains

Passage in embryonated domestic fowl eggs

Highly effective; may induce sterilising immunisation

Cavanagh D (2007)

Vector Constructs

Vector name

Backbone strain

Application

Insertion capacity (kb)

Additional information

References

IBV CD-61

Avian coronavirus (IBV Beaudette)

Expression

1

Transcription regulated by ibv control sequences

Penzes et al (1996)

vNotI/IBV(FL)

Avian coronavirus (IBV Beaudette)

Reverse genetics

27.6

Recombinant vaccinia virus containing the full-length genome of mhv

Casais R et al (2001)

IBV c-DNA

Avian coronavirus (IBV Beaudette)

Reverse genetics

27.6

Full-length genome infectious clone constructed through ligation of five inserts

Youn JG et al (2005)

Avian coronavirus (IBV). Fig. 1

Transmission electron micrograph, negative staining of purified virus. Length of bar (nm): 100 (Courtesy of Dr. A. Lavazza, Istituto Zooprofilattico di Lombardia ed Emilia Romagna, Italy)

Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammacoronavirus replication cycle. Fig. 2

HE protein is present only in some Betacoronaviruses (Courtesy of Dr Viviana Tarallo, Department of Veterinary Public Health, Valenzano, Italy)

Genome organization of Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammacoronavirus prototypes (a) and transcription map of Murine coronavirus MHV (b). Fig. 3

Numbers above bars = ORFs; L leader; UTR untranslated region; Rep replicase; (A)n poly A (Modified from Springer Index of Viruses, 1st edition, with permission)

References

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Animal Health and Well-beingValenzanoItaly