Surface Variation in Tribological Processes
Tribological processes take place as two contacting surfaces are moving relative to each other, and both physical as well as chemical changes occur depending on the actual local conditions (considered as input data, such as surface topography, involved materials, and lubricants). Tribological processes are functions of time. They may change the surface geometry and the material composition, resulting in energy-related output effects: wear, friction, temperature, sound, and dynamic behavior. And, vice versa, the tribological processes may be changed by the resulting surface and contact conditions. The main effects of tribological processes are wear and friction, which are influenced by surface variation.
The surfaces of solids contain geometrical imperfections at many scales of length that influence tribological processes. At the atomic scale, surface irregularities are deviations from...
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