Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2011 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Metacognitive Skills

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-79948-3_897


Metacognitive skills are strategies applied consciously or automatically during learning, cognitive activity, and communication to manipulate cognitive processes before, during, or after a cognitive activity (Flavell, 1976, 1979). Examples are executive function processes such as verbal mediation, self-regulation, planning, judgment, and self-monitoring.

Current Knowledge

Application of metacognitive skills allows one to be aware of one’s own beliefs, attitudes, and experiences; to relate those internal states to the external environment and events in order to construct meaning from information; to infer the mental states of others (theory of mind); and to draw implications about the motives and intentions of others. Metacognitive skills contribute to an individual’s communicative competence during interaction with one or more communication partners through pragmatics, or the social use of language. Metacognitive skills in the form of pragmatic skills allow a speaker to...

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References and Readings

  1. Flavell, J. H. (1976). Metacognitive aspects of problem solving. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.), The nature of intelligence (pp. 231–236). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  2. Flavell, J. H. (1979). Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive-developmental inquiry. American Psychologist, 34, 906–911.Google Scholar
  3. Metcalf, J. (2009). Metacognitive judgments and control of study. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18, 159–163Google Scholar
  4. Shimamura, A. P. (2000). Toward a cognitive neuroscience of metacognition. Consciousness and Cognition, 9, 313–323.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Sohlberg, M. M., & Mateer, C. A. (2001). Management of dysexecutive symptoms. In M. M. Sohlberg & C. A. Mateer (Eds.), Cognitive rehabilitation: An integrative neuropsychological approach (pp. 230–268, 337–369). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Communicartive Sciences and DisordersCalifornia State University East BayHaywardUSA