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Intelligence

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Synonyms

Emotional intelligence (EI); FSIQ; GAI; General cognitive ability; General cognitive functioning; IQ; PIQ; VIQ

Definition

The term “intelligence” has been generally operationalized as a construct reflecting individual differences in cognitive abilities underlying various skills and behaviors such as educational and occupational success. However, the definition of “intelligence” and the abilities, aptitudes, and behaviors this construct includes has been a source of debate over the course of human history.

Many definitions of intelligence have emerged over the years. For example, Binet (Binet & Simon, 1905) defined intelligence in terms of judgment, practical sense, initiative, and adaptability; whereas Wechsler (1958) later defined it as “the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with his/her environment” (p. 7). Moreover, intelligence was viewed by Wechsler as a composite of different abilities that is...

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  • DOI: 10.1007/978-0-387-79948-3_1061
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References and Readings

  • Binet, A., & Simon, T. (1905). Méthode nouvelle pour le diagnostic du niveau intellectuel des anormaux. L'Année Psychologique, 11, 191–244.

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  • Horn, J. L. (1998). A basis for research on age differences in cognitive capabilities. In J. J. McArdle & R. W. Woodcock (Eds.), Human cognitive abilities in theory and practice (pp. 57–87). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

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  • Sternberg, R. J. (2007). Wisdom, intelligence, and creativity synthesized. New York: Cambridge University Press.

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  • Sternberg, R. J., & Grigorenko, E. L. (2000). Teaching for successful intelligence. Arlington Heights, IL: Skylight.

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  • Wechsler, D. (1958). The measurement and appraisal of adult intelligence (3rd Ed.). Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins.

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Hindes, Y., Schoenberg, M.R., Saklofske, D.H. (2011). Intelligence. In: Kreutzer, J.S., DeLuca, J., Caplan, B. (eds) Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology. Springer, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-79948-3_1061

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