Retracted Chapter: Plessy v. Ferguson
Retraction: The Editor has decided to retract the below entries from the Encyclopedia of Cross-Cultural School Psychology (DOI 10.1007/978-0-387-71799-9). Upon investigation carried out according to the Committee on Publication Ethics guidelines, it has been found that the author plagiarized substantial parts of the following entrie: Plessy v. Ferguson (2010, pp 731–732)
When the Reconstruction area abruptly ended in 1877, Southern state governments began passing Jim Crow laws that prohibited Blacks from using the same public accommodations as Whites. In the Civil Rights Cases of 1883, the Supreme Court ruled that the Fourteenth Amendment only applied to the actions of state governments and did not apply to private individuals. The result of this ruling was that persons were not protected against individuals or private entities that violated their civil rights. In particular, the Supreme Court invalidated most of the Civil Rights Act of 1875—a law passed by Congress to protect Blacks...
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