Reference Work Entry

Encyclopedia of Cross-Cultural School Psychology

pp 547-553



  • Emilia C LopezAffiliated withDivision of Education, Queens College, City University of New York

In 2001, the National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition and Language Instruction estimated that over four million students who attend public schools were limited English proficient or English language learners (ELLs). The Clearinghouse also estimated that these students spoke over 400 different languages. Their families tend to have difficulties communicating with school professionals owing to limited skills in the English language. The number of ELLs will continue to increase during the twenty-first century. School psychologists and other school professionals often enroll the services of school interpreters to communicate better with ELLs and their families.


The term translation refers to the process of changing messages produced in one language to another language. The source language is that from which one translates, whereas the language into which the translation is made is referred to as the target language. The terms “interpreters” and “translat ...

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