Encyclopedia of Remote Sensing

2014 Edition
| Editors: Eni G. Njoku

Acoustic Waves, Scattering

  • Alain Weill
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-36699-9_3

Definition

Scattering. A way by which obstacles or medium fluctuations of small dimensions can modify acoustic wave propagation in the medium. The difference between scattering processes and the reflection/refraction process is related to acoustic wavelengths. For scattering, acoustic wavelengths are of the order of obstacles and medium fluctuation dimensions. Francisco Maria Grimaldi first described scattering of optical waves in 1665, in the opus Physicomathesis of lumine, but this principle was renounced by Fresnel at the end of seventeenth century.

It is important to differentiate between scattering and diffraction.Diffraction concerns perturbations whose dimensions are large compared to a wavelength.

Introduction

In the first section, we will describe acoustic scattering by simple obstacles such as spheres. The second section will introduce Lambert scattering and Marsh scattering from surfaces; this process is particularly important for sonar sounding. The third section will...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Bibliography

  1. Batchelor, G. K., 1957. Wave scattering due to turbulence. In Sherman, F. S. (eds.), Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics, NASNRC publication, N°515, National Research Council, Washington DC, Vol. 409, p. 430.Google Scholar
  2. Brown, E. H., and Hall, F. F., 1978. Advances in atmospheric acoustics. Reviews of Geophysics and Space Physics, 16(171), 180.Google Scholar
  3. Kallistratova, M. A., 1959. Procedure for investigating sound scattering in the atmosphere. Soviet Physics-Acoustics, 5(512), 514. English translation.Google Scholar
  4. Kallistratova, M. A., 1962. Experimental studies of sound wave scattering in the atmosphere. In Proceedings of the Third International Congress on Acoustics. Amsterdam: EAA, ASA, DEGA, Vol. 7, p. 10.Google Scholar
  5. Kallistratova, M. A., 2002. Acoustic waves in the turbulent atmosphere: a review. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 1139, 1150.Google Scholar
  6. Kolmogorov, A. N., 1941. Dissipation of energy in locally isotropic turbulence. Proceeding of USSR Academy of Sciences, 32, 16–18. English translation in Proceedings of Royal Society of London, Series A 434, 15 (1991).Google Scholar
  7. Lord Rayleigh, J. W. S., 1878. Theory of Sound. London: Macmillan (1st Ed., 1878, 2nd Ed., 1896). See recent Dover edition, 480 pp.Google Scholar
  8. Lord Rayleigh, J. W. S., 1945. Theory of Sound. New York: Dover, p. 480.Google Scholar
  9. Marsh, H. W., 1964. Sea surface statistics deduced from underwater sound measurement. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 118(2), 137–145, doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1964.tb33977.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. McAllister, L. G., 1968. Acoustic sounding of the lower atmosphere. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 30, 1439–1440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Monin, A. S., 1962. Charcteristics of the scattering of sound in a turbulent atmosphere. Soviet Physics-Acoustics, 7, 370–373. English translation.Google Scholar
  12. Neff, W. D., and Coulter, R., 1986. Acoustic remote sensing. In Lenschow, D. (ed.), Probing the Atmospheric Boundary Layer. London: American Meteorological Society, Vol. 201, p. 242.Google Scholar
  13. Tatarskii, V. I., 1961. Wave Propagation in a Turbulent Medium (trans: Silverman, R.A.). New-York: Mac Graw Hill, 285 pp.Google Scholar
  14. Tatarskii, V. I., 1971. The effects of the turbulent atmosphere on wave propagation. In Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem, NTIS TT 68–50464, 472 pp. (Available from the National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Rd., Springfield, VA 22161).Google Scholar
  15. Urick, R. J., 1976. Principles of Underwater Sound. New York: McGraw-Hill, 423 pp.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alain Weill
    • 1
  1. 1.Bur. JussieuLATMOS, Laboratoire Atmosphere Milieux Observations SpatialesParisFrance