Encyclopedia of GIS

2008 Edition
| Editors: Shashi Shekhar, Hui Xiong

Pyramid Technique

  • Christian Böhm
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-35973-1_1050


Pyramid tree


The Pyramid Technique [1] is an indexing technique for point data (feature vectors) of a multidimensional space, particularly designed for medium to high dimensionality starting from d = 10. Like Z-ordering [2] and other space-filling-curve techniques the pyramid technique gives a one‐dimensional embedding of the high dimensional points. The embedded objects can be indexed by any one‐dimensional index structure which supports range queries (interval queries) such as all B-tree [3] variants as well as all order preserving hashing methods. The pyramid technique can efficiently handle multidimensional interval queries and nearest neighbor queries using maximum metric.

Historical Background

Index structures for vector spaces of medium to high dimensionality [4,5,6] have become very popular in the 1990s, because traditional index structures for vector data, such as the R-tree [7] and its variants tend to deteriorate as the dimensionality of the space...


Feature Vector Index Structure Range Query Space Partitioning Query Object 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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Recommended Reading

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    Berchtold, S., Böhm, C., Kriegel, H-P.: The pyramid-technique: towards breaking the curse of dimensionality, pp. 142–153, SIGMOD Conference, (1998)Google Scholar
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    Jagadish, H.V., Ooi, B.C., Tan, K.-L., Cui, Yu, Rui, Zhang: iDistance: An adaptive B+-tree based indexing method for nearest neighbor search. ACM Trans. Database Syst. 30(2):364–397 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christian Böhm
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Computer Science Database and Information SystemsUniversity of MunichMunichGermany