Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science

2009 Edition
| Editors: Robert A. Meyers (Editor-in-Chief)

Volcanic Eruptions: Cyclicity During Lava Dome Growth

  • Oleg Melnik
  • R. Stephen J. Sparks
  • Antonio Costa
  • Alexei A. Barmin
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-30440-3_578

Definition of the Subject

We consider the process of slow extrusion of very viscous magma that forms lava domes. Dome‐building eruptions are commonly associated with hazardous phenomena, including pyroclastic flows generated by dome collapses, explosive eruptions and volcanic blasts. These eruptions commonly display fairly regular alternations between periods of high and low or no activity with time scales from hours to years. Usually hazardous phenomena are associated with periods of high magma discharge rate, thus, understanding the causes of pulsatory activity during extrusive eruptions is an important step towards forecasting volcanic behavior, especially the transition to explosive activity when magma discharge rate increases by a few orders of magnitude. In recent years the risks have increased because the population density in the vicinity of many active volcanoes has increased.

Introduction

Many volcanic eruptions involve the formation of lava domes , which are extrusions of...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by NERC research grant reference NE/C509958/1. OM and ABacknowledge Russian Foundation for Basic Research (08-01-00016) and President of Russian Federation program (NCH-4710.2006.1). RSJS acknowledgesa Royal Society Wolfson Merit Award. The Royal Scoiety exchange grants and NERC grants had supported the Bristol/Moscow work over the last 10 years.

Bibliography

Primary Literature

  1. 1.
    Balmforth NJ, Burbidge AS, Craster RV (2001) Shallow Lava Theory. In: Balmforth NJ, Provenzale A (eds) Geomorphological Fluid Mechanics. Lecture Notes in Physics, vol 582. Springer, Berlin, pp 164–187Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Balmforth NJ, Burbidge AS, Craster RV, Rust AC, Sassi R (2006) Viscoplastic flow over an inclined surface. J Non‐Newtonian Fluid Mech 139:103–127MATHGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Barmin A, Melnik O, Sparks RSJ (2002) Periodic behaviour in lava dome eruptions. Earth Planet Sc Lett 199:173–184ADSGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bingham EC (1922) Fluidity and Plasticity. McGraw–Hill, New York, p 215Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Blake S (1990) Viscoplastic models of lava domes. In: Fink JH (ed) Lava flows and domes, Vol 2. In: Fink JH (ed) Lava flows and domes; emplacement mechanisms and hazard implications. Springer, Berlin, pp 88–126Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Blundy JD, Cashman KV, Humphreys MCS (2006) Magma heating by decompression‐driven crystallisation beneath andesite volcanoes. Nature 443:76–80. doi:10.1038/nature05100 ADSGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Calder ES, Luckett R, Sparks RSJ, Voight B (2002) Mechanisms of lava dome instability and generation of rockfalls and pyroclastic flows at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat. In: Druitt TH, Kokelaar BP (eds) The Eruption of Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, from 1995 to 1999, Geological Society, London, Memoirs No 21, pp 173–190Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Calder ES, Cortés JA, Palma JL, Luckett R (2005) Probabilistic analysis of rockfall frequencies during an andesite lava dome eruption: The Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat. Geophys Res Lett 32:L16309. doi:10.1029/2005GL023594
  9. 9.
    Caricchi L, Burlini L, Ulmer P, Gerya T, Vassalli M, Papale P (2007) Non‐Newtonian rheology of crystal‐bearing magmas and implications for magma ascent dynamics. Earth Planet Sci Lett 10.1016/j.epsl.2007.09.032Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cashman KV, Blundy JD (2000) Degassing and crystallization of ascending andesite and dacite. In: Francis P, Neuberg J, Sparks RSJ (eds) Causes and consequences of eruptions of andesite volcanoes. Phil Trans Royal Soc London A, pp 1487–1513Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chouet B, Dawson P, Arciniega–Ceballos A (2005) Source mechanism of Vulcanian degassing at Popocate'petl Volcano, Mexico, determined from waveform inversions of very long period signals. J Geophys Res 110:B07301. doi:10.1029/2004JB003524
  12. 12.
    Christiansen RL, Peterson DW (1981) Chronology of the 1980 Eruptive Activity. In: Lipman PW, Mullineaux DR (eds) The 1980 Eruptions of Mount St. Helens. Washington, US Geological Survey Professional Paper 1250, p 844Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Clarke AB, Stephens S, Teasdale R, Sparks RSJ, Diller K (2007) Petrological constraints on the decompression history of magma prior to Vulcanian explosions at the Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 161:261–274. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2006.11.007 ADSGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cole P, Calder ES, Sparks RSJ, Clarke AB, Druitt TH, Young SR, Herd R, Harford CL, Norton GE (2002) Deposits from dome‐collapse and fountain‐collapse pyroclastic flows at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat. In: Druitt TH, Kokelaar BP (eds) The eruption of the Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat from 1995 to 1999. Geological Society, London, Memoir No 21, pp 231–262Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Connor CB, Sparks RSJ, Mason RM, Bonadonna C, Young SR (2003) Exploring links between physical and probabilistic models of volcanic eruptions: the Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat. Geophys Res Lett 30. doi:10.1029/2003GLO17384
  16. 16.
    Costa A (2005) Viscosity of high crystal content melts: dependence on solid fraction. Geophys Res Lett 32:L22308. doi:10.1029/2005GL02430 ADSGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Costa A, Macedonio G (2002) Nonlinear phenomena in fluids with temperature‐dependent viscosity: an hysteresis model for magma flow in conduits. Geophys Res Lett 29(10). doi:1029/2001GL014493
  18. 18.
    Costa A, Macedonio G (2003) Viscous heating in fluids with temperature‐dependent viscosity: implications for magma flows. Nonlinear Proc Geophys 10:545–555 ADSGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Costa A, Macedonio G (2005) Viscous heating in fluids with temperature‐dependent viscosity: triggering of secondary flows. J Fluid Mech 540:21–38MathSciNetADSMATHGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Costa A, Melnik O, Sparks RSJ (2007) Controls of conduit geometry and wallrock elasticity on lava dome eruptions. Earth Planet Sci Lett 260:137–151. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2007.05.024 ADSGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Costa A, Melnik O, Sparks RSJ, Voight B (2007) The control of magma flow in dykes on cyclic lava dome extrusion. Geophys Res Lett 34:L02303. doi:1029/2006GL027466 ADSGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Couch S, Sparks RSJ, Carroll MR (2001) Mineral disequilibrium in lavas explained by convective self‐mixing in open magma chambers. Nature 411:1037–1039ADSGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Denlinger RP, Hoblitt RP (1999) Cyclic eruptive behaviour of silicic volcanoes. Geology 27(5):459–462ADSGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Diller K, Clarke AB, Voight B, Neri A (2006) Mechanisms of conduit plug formation: Implications for vulcanian explosions. Geophys Res Lett 33:L20302. doi:10.1029/2006GL027391 ADSGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Dirksen O, Humphreys MCS, Pletchov P, Melnik O, Demyanchuk Y, Sparks RSJ, Mahony S (2006) The 2001–2004 dome‐forming eruption of Shiveluch Volcano, Kamchatka: Observation, petrological investigation and numerical modelling. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 155:201–226. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2006.03.029 ADSGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Druitt TH, Young S, Baptie B, Calder E, Clarke AB, Cole P, Harford C, Herd R, Luckett R, Ryan G, Sparks RSJ, Voight B (2002) Episodes of cyclic Vulcanian explosive activity with fountain collapse at Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat. In: Druitt TH, Kokelaar BP (eds) The eruption of the Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat from 1995 to 1999. Geological Society, London, Memoir No 21, pp 231–262Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Eichelberger JC, Carrigan CR, Westrich HR, Price RH (1986) Non‐explosive silicic volcanism. Nature 323:598–602ADSGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Fedotov SA, Dvigalo VN, Zharinov NA, Ivanov VV, Seliverstov NI, Khubunaya SA, Demyanchuk YV, Markov LG, Osipenko LG, Smelov NP (2001) The eruption of Shiveluch volcano on May–July 2001. Volcanol Seis 6:3–15Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Fink JH, Griffiths RW (1990) Radial spreading of viscous gravity currents with solidifying crust. J Fluid Mech 221:485–509ADSGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Fink JH, Griffiths RW (1998) Morphology, eruption rates, and rheology of lava domes: Insights from laboratory models. J Geophys Res 103:527–545ADSGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Green, DN, Neuberg J (2006) Waveform classification of volcanic low‐frequency earthquake swarms and its implication at Soufrire Hills Volcano, Montserrat. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 153:51–63. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2005.08.003 ADSGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hale AJ, Bourgouin L, Mühlhaus HB (2007) Using the level set method to model endogenous lava dome growth. J Geophys Res 112:B03213. doi:10.1029/2006JB004445
  33. 33.
    Hale AJ, Wadge G (2003) Numerical modeling of the growth dynamics of a simple silicic lava dome. Geophys Res Lett 30(19). doi:10.1029/2003GL018182
  34. 34.
    Hammer JE, Rutherford MJ (2002) An experimental study of the kinetics of decompression‐induced crystallization in silicic melt. J Geophys Res 107:(B1). doi:10.1029/2001JB000281
  35. 35.
    Harris AL, Rose WI, Flynn LP (2002) Temporal trends in Lava Dome extrusion at Santiaguito 1922–2000. Bull Volcanol 65:77–89ADSGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hess KU, Dingwell DB (1996) Viscosities of hydrous leucogranite melts: A non‐Arrhenian model. Am Mineral 81:1297–1300Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hoblitt RP, Wolfe EW, Scott WE, Couchman MR, Pallister JS, Javier D (1996) The preclimactic eruptions of Mount Pinatubo, June 1991. In: Newhall CG, Punongbayan RS (eds) Fire and Mud: Eruptions and Lahars of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines. Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Quezon City, and University of Washington Press, Seattle, pp 457–511Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hort M (1998) Abrupt change in magma liquidus temperature because of volatile loss or magma mixing: effects of Nucleation, crystal growth and thermal history of the magma. J Petrol 39:1063–1076Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Humphreys M, Blundy, JD, Sparks RSJ (2006) Magma Evolution and Open‐system processes at Shiveluch Volcano: insights from phenocryst zoning. J Petrol 47:(12) 2303–2334. doi:10.1093/petrology/eg1045 Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Huppert HE, Shepherd JB, Sigurdsson H, Sparks RSJ (1982) On lava dome growth, with application to the 1979 lava extrusion of the Soufriere, St Vincent. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 14:199–222ADSGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Huppert HE, Woods AW (2002) The role of volatiles in magma chamber dynamics. Nature 420:493–495ADSGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ida Y (1996) Cyclic fluid effusion accompanied by pressure change: Implication for volcanic eruptions and tremor. Geophys Res Lett 23:1457–1460ADSGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Iverson RM et al (2006) Dynamics of seismogenic volcanic extrusion at Mount St. Helens in 2004–05. Nature 444:439–443ADSGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Jaquet O, Sparks RSJ, Carniel R (2006) Magma Memory recorded by statistics of volcanic explosions at the Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat. In: Mader HM, Coles SG, Connor CB, Connor LJ (eds) Statistics in Volcanology. Geological Society, London, Special Publication of IAVCEI, vol 1. pp 175–184Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Jaupart C, Allegre CJ (1991) Gas content, eruption rate and instabilities of eruption regime in silicic volcanoes. Earth Planet Sci Lett 102:413–429ADSGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kirkpatrick R (1976) Towards a Kinetic Model for the Crystallization of Magma Bodies. J Geophys Res 81:2565–2571ADSGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Landau L, Lifshitz E (1987) Fluid Mechanics, 2nd edn. Butterworth–Heinmann, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Lejeune A, Richet P (1995) Rheology of crystal‐bearing silicate melts: An experimental study at high viscosità. J Geophys Res 100:4215–4229ADSGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Lensky NG, Sparks RSJ, Navon O, Lyakhovsky V (2007) Cylic activity at Soufriere Hills volcano, Montserrat: degassing-induced pressurization and stick-slip extrusion. In: Lane SJ, Gilbert JS (eds) Fluid motions in volcanic conduits: a source of seismic and acoustic signals. Geolocical Society, London, Special Publications, vol 307, pp 169–188. doi:10.1144/SP307.100305-8719/08/$15.00 The Geological Society of London 2008
  50. 50.
    Lister JR, Kerr RC (1991) Fluid mechanical models of crack propagation and their application to magma transport in dykes. J Geophys Res 96:10049–10077ADSGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Llewellin EW, Manga M (2005) Bubble suspension rheology and implications for conduit flow. J Geotherm Res 143:205–217ADSGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Loitsyansky LG (1978) Fluid and gas mechanics. Nauka, Moscow, pp 847 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Maeda I (2000) Nonlinear visco‐elastic volcanic model and its application to the recent eruption of Mt. Unzen. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 95:35–47ADSGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Mason RM, Starostin AB, Melnik O, Sparks RSJ (2006) From Vulcanian explosions to sustained explosive eruptions: The role of diffusive mass transfer in conduit flow dynamics. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 153:148–165. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2005.08.011 ADSGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Marsh BD (2000) Reservoirs of Magma and Magma chambers. In: Sigurdsson H (ed) Encyclopedia of volcanoes. Academic Press, New York, pp 191–206Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Mastin GL, Pollard DD (1988) Surface Deformation and Shallow Dike Intrusion Processes at Inyo Craters, Long Valley, California. J Geophys Res 93(B11):13221–13235ADSGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Matthews SJ, Gardeweg MC, Sparks RSJ (1997) The 1984 to 1996 cyclic activity of Lascar Volcano, northern Chile: Cycles of dome growth, dome subsidence, degassing and explosive eruptions. Bull Volcanol 59:72–82ADSGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Mattioli G, Dixon TH, Farina F, Howell ES, Jansma PE, Smith AL (1998) GPS measurement of surface deformation around Soufriere Hills volcano, Montserrat from October 1995 to July 1996. Geophys Res Lett 25(18):3417–3420ADSGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Melnik O (2000) Dynamics of two-phase conduit flow of high‐viscosity gas‐saturated magma: large variations of sustained explosive eruption intensity. Bull Volcanol 62:153–170ADSGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Melnik O, Barmin A, Sparks RSJ (2005) Dynamics of magma flow inside volcanic conduits with bubble overpressure buildup and gas loss through permeable magma. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 143:53–68ADSGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Melnik O, Sparks RSJ (1999) Non‐linear dynamics of lava dome extrusion. Nature 402:37–41 ADSGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Melnik O, Sparks RSJ (2002) Dynamics of magma ascent and lava extrusion at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat. In: Druitt TH, Kokelaar BP (eds) The eruption of the Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat from 1995 to 1999. Geological Society, London, Memoir No 21, pp 223–240Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Melnik O, Sparks RSJ (2005) Controls on conduit magma flow dynamics during lava dome building eruptions. J Geophys Res 110(B02209). doi:10.1029/2004JB003183
  64. 64.
    Mériaux C, Jaupart C (1995) Simple fluid dynamic models of volcanic rift zones. Earth Planet Sci Lett 136:223–240Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Murphy MD, Sparks SJ, Barclay J, Carroll MR, Brewer TS (2000) Remobilization origin for andesite magma by intrusion of mafic magma at the Soufrière Hills Volcano. In: Montserrat WI (ed) A trigger for renewed eruption. J Petrol 41:21–42Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Muskhelishvili N (1963) Some Basic Problems in the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity. Noordhof, Leiden, The Netherlands Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Nakada S, Eichelberger JC (2004) Looking into a volcano: drilling Unzen. Geotimes 49:14–17Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Nakada S, Shimizu H, Ohta K (1999) Overview of the 1990–1995 eruption at Unzen Volcano. J Volcanol Geoth Res 89:1–22ADSGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Navon O, Lyakhovsky V (1998) Vesiculation processes in silicic magmas. In: Gilbert J, Sparks RSJ (eds) The Physics of explosive volcanic eruption. Geological Society London, Special Pubblication, vol 145. pp 27–50Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Neuberg JW, Tuffen H, Collier L, Green D, Powell T, Dingwell D (2006) The trigger mechanism of low‐frequency earthquakes on Montserrat. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 153:37–50ADSGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Newhall CG, Melson WG (1983) Explosive activity associated with the growth of volcanic domes. J Volcanol Geoth Res 17:111–131ADSGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Norton GE, Watts RB, Voight B, Mattioli GS, Herd RA, Young SR, Devine JD, Aspinall WP, Bonadonna C, Baptie BJ, Edmonds M, Harford CL, Jolly AD, Loughlin SC, Luckett R, Sparks RSJ (2002) Pyroclastic flow and explosive activity of the lava dome of Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat, during a period of no magma extrusion (March 1998 to November 1999). In: Druitt TH, Kokelaar BP (eds) The eruption of the Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat from 1995 to 1999. Geological Society, London, Memoir No 21, pp 467–482Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Ohba T, Kitade Y (2005) Subvolcanic hydrothermal systems: Implications from hydrothermal minerals in hydrovolcanic ash. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 145:249–262ADSGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Robertson R, Cole P, Sparks RSJ, Harford C, Lejeune AM, McGuire WJ, Miller AD, Murphy MD, Norton G, Stevens NF, Young SR (1998) The explosive eruption of Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat 17 September, 1996. Geophys Res Lett 25:3429–3432ADSGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Roman DC (2005) Numerical models of volcanotectonic earthquake triggering on non‐ideally oriented faults. Geophys Res Lett 32, doi:10.1029/2004GL021549
  76. 76.
    Roman DC, Neuberg J, Luckett RR (2006) Assessing the likelihood of volcanic eruption through analysis of volcanotectonic earthquake fault-plane solutions. Earth Planet Sci Lett 248:244–252ADSGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Rubin AM (1995) Propagation of magma‐filled cracks. Annu Rev Planet Sci 23:287–336ADSGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Saar MO, Manga M, Katharine VC, Fremouw S (2001) Numerical models of the onset of yield strength in crystal–melt suspensions. Earth Planet Sci Lett 187:367–379ADSGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Sahagian D (2005) Volcanic eruption mechanisms: Insights from intercomparison of models of conduit processes. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 143(1–3): 1–15ADSGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Slezin YB (1984) Dispersion regime dynamics in volcanic eruptions, 2. Flow rate instability conditions and nature of catastrophic explosive eruptions. Vulkanol Seism 1:23–35Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Slezin YB (2003) The mechanism of volcanic eruptions (a steady state approach). J Volcanol Geotherm Res 122:7–50ADSGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Sparks RSJ (1978) The dynamics of bubble formation and growth in magmas – a review and analysis. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 3:1–37Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Sparks RSJ (1997) Causes and consequences of pressurization in lava dome eruptions. Earth Planet Sci Lett 150:177–189ADSGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Sparks RSJ (2003) Forecasting Volcanic Eruptions. Earth and Planetary Science Letters Frontiers in Earth Science Series 210:1–15ADSGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Sparks RSJ, Aspinall WP (2004) Volcanic Activity: Frontiers and Challenges. In: Forecasting, Prediction, and Risk Assessment. AGU Geophysical Monograph “State of the Planet” 150, IUGG Monograph 19, pp 359–374Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Sparks RSJ, Murphy MD, Lejeune AM, Watts RB, Barclay J, Young SR (2000) Control on the emplacement of the andesite lava dome of the Soufriere Hills Volcano by degassing‐induced crystallization. Terra Nova 12:14–20Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Sparks RSJ, Young SR (2002) The eruption of Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat (1995–1999): overview of scientific results. In: Druitt TH, Kokelaar BP (eds) The eruption of the Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat from 1995 to 1999. Geological Society, London, Memoir No 21, pp 45–69Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Sparks RSJ, Young SR, Barclay J, Calder ES, Cole PD, Darroux B, Davies MA, Druitt TH, Harford CL, Herd R, James M, Lejeune AM, Loughlin S, Norton G, Skerrit G, Stevens NF, Toothill J, Wadge G, Watts R (1998) Magma production and growth of the lava dome of the Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, West Indies: November 1995 to December 1997. Geophys Res Lett 25:3421–3424ADSGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Swanson DA, Holcomb RT (1990) Regularities in growth of the Mount St. Helens dacite dome 1980–1986. In: Fink JH (ed) Lava flows and domes; emplacement mechanisms and hazard implications. Springer, Berlin, pp 3–24Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Voight B, Hoblitt RP, Clarke AB, Lockhart AB, Miller AD, Lynch L, McMahon J (1998) Remarkable cyclic ground deformation monitored in real-time on Montserrat, and its use in eruption forecasting. Geophys Res Lett 25:3405–3408ADSGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Voight B, Sparks RSJ, Miller AD, Stewart RC, Hoblitt RP, Clarke A, Ewart J, Aspinall W, Baptie B, Druitt TH, Herd R, Jackson P, Lockhart AB, Loughlin SC, Lynch L, McMahon J, Norton GE, Robertson R, Watson IM, Young SR (1999) Magma flow instability and cyclic activity at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat. Science 283:1138–1142ADSGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Walker GPL (1973) Lengths of lava flows. Philos Trans Royal Soc A 274:107–118ADSGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Watson IM et al (2000) The relationship between degassing and ground deformation at Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 98(1–4):117–126ADSGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Watts RB, Sparks RSJ, Herd RA, Young SR (2002) Growth patterns and emplacement of the andesitic lava dome at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat. In: Druitt TH, Kokelaar BP (eds) The eruption of the Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat from 1995 to 1999. Geological Society, London, Memoir No 21, pp 115–152Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Whitehead JA, Helfrich KR (1991) Instability of flow with temperature‐dependent viscosity: a model of magma dynamics. J Geophys Res 96:4145–4155ADSGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Williams SN, Self S (1983) The October 1902 Plinian eruption of Santa Maria volcano, Guatemala. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 16:33–56ADSGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Woods AW, Koyaguchi T (1994) Transitions between explosive and effusive eruption of silicic magmas. Nature 370:641–645ADSGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Wylie JJ, Voight B, Whitehead JA (1999) Instability of magma flow from volatile‐dependent viscosity. Science 285:1883–1885Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Yokoyama I, Yamashita H, Watanabe H, Okada H (1981) Geophysical characteristics of dacite volcanism – 1977–1978 eruption of Usu volcano. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 9:335–358ADSGoogle Scholar

Books and Reviews

  1. 100.
    Dobran F (2001) Volcanic Processes: Mechanisms In Material Transport. Kluwer, New York, pp 620Google Scholar
  2. 101.
    Gilbert JS, Sparks RSJ (eds) (1998) The Physics of Explosive Volcanism. Special Publication of the Geological Society of London, vol 145, pp 186Google Scholar
  3. 102.
    Gonnermann H, Manga M (2007) The fluid mechanics inside a volcano. Ann Rev Fluid Mech 39:321–356 MathSciNetADSGoogle Scholar
  4. 103.
    Mader HM, Coles SG, Connor CB, Connor LJ (2006) Statistics in Volcanology. IAVCEI Publications, Geological Society Publishing House, p 296Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Oleg Melnik
    • 1
    • 2
  • R. Stephen J. Sparks
    • 2
  • Antonio Costa
    • 2
    • 3
  • Alexei A. Barmin
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of MechanicsMoscow State UniversityMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Earth Science DepartmentUniversity of BristolBristolUK
  3. 3.Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e VulcanologiaNaplesItaly