Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science

2009 Edition
| Editors: Robert A. Meyers (Editor-in-Chief)

Genome Organization

  • Gustavo Glusman
  • Arian F. A. Smit
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-30440-3_245

Definition

With rare exceptions, all known living organisms encode their genetic material in the form of double‐stranded DNA, in one or more chromosomes,collectively referred to as the “genome”. A cell lacking its genome cannot survive for long, since it cannot produce new transcripts inresponse to environmental challenges. For example, red blood cells lose their DNA and can only function as oxygen shuttles until they break down. Thegenome includes most of the information needed by the cells to stay alive, to differentiate into new cell types, and to perform their functions in thecontext of the organism. As such, it is the ultimate resource for identifying the full set of components in the living system. Eukaryotic genomes are muchlarger than strictly needed to encode the relatively modest set of genes in them, but several mechanisms give rise to a very complextranscriptome.

Introduction

In 1920, the German botanist Hans Winkler wrote: “I propose the expression Genom for the haploid...

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gustavo Glusman
    • 1
  • Arian F. A. Smit
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Systems BiologySeattleUSA