Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science

2009 Edition
| Editors: Robert A. Meyers (Editor-in-Chief)

Freeway Traffic Management and Control

  • A. Hegyi
  • T. Bellemans
  • B. De Schutter
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-30440-3_232

Acronyms and Abbreviations


Model Predictive Control




Advanced Driver Assistance Systems


Automated Highway System


Intelligent Vehicle/Highway System

Definition of the Subject

The goal of this chapter is to provide an overview of dynamic traffic control techniques described in the literature and applied inpractice. Dynamic traffic control is the term to indicate a collection of tools, procedures, and methods that areused to intervene in traffic in order to improve the traffic flow on the short term, i. e., ranging from minutes to hours. The nature of theimprovement may include increased safety, higher traffic flows, shorter travel times, more stable traffic flows, more reliable travel times, or reducedemissions and noise production.

The tools used for this purpose are in general changeable signs (including traffic signals, dynamic speed limit signs, and changeable messagesigns), radio broadcast messages, or human traffic controllers at the location...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


Primary Literature

  1. 1.
    Alessandri A, Di Febbraro A, Ferrara A, Punta E (1999) Nonlinear optimization for freeway control using variable‐speed signaling. IEEE Trans Veh Technol 48(6):2042–2052Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Algers S, Bernauer E, Boero M, Breheret L, Di Taranto C, Dougherty M, Fox K, Gabard J-F (2000) SMARTEST – Final report for publication. Technical report, ITS, University of Leeds. http://www.its.leeds.ac.uk/projects/smartest. Accessed on 22 July 2008
  3. 3.
    André M, Hammarström U (2000) Driving speeds in europe for pollutant emissions estimation. Transp Res Part D 5(5):321–335Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Åström KJ, Wittenmark B (1997) Computer Controlled Systems, 3rd edn. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle RiverGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Banks JH (2005) Metering ramps to divert traffic around bottlenecks: Some elementary theory. Transp Res Rec 1925:12–19Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bell MGH (2000) A game theory approach to measuring the performance reliability of transport networks. Transp Res Part B 34(6):533–545Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bellemans T (2003) Traffic Control on Motorways. Ph.D. Thesis, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven. ftp://ftp.esat.kuleuven.ac.be/pub/SISTA/bellemans/PhD/03-82.pdf. Accessed on 22 July 2008
  8. 8.
    Bellemans T, De Schutter B, De Moor B (2006) Model predictive control for ramp metering of motorway traffic: A case study. Control Eng Practice 14:757–767Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bellemans T, De Schutter B, Wets G, De Moor B (2006) Model predictive control for ramp metering combined with extended kalman filter‐based traffic state estimation. In: Proceedings of the 2006 IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Conference (ITSC 2006), Toronto, Canada, pp 406–411Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bishop R (2005) Intelligent vehicle technology and trends. In: Walker J (ed) Artech House ITS Library. Artech House, BostonGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Braess D (1968) Über ein Paradoxon aus der Verkehrsplanung. Unternehmensforsch 12:258–268MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Branston D (1976) Models of single lane time headway distributions. Transp Sci 10:125–148Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Brownfield J, Graham A, Eveleigh H, Maunsell F, Ward H, Robertson S, Allsop R (2003) Congestion and accident risk. In: Technical report, Road Safety Research Report no. 44. Department for Transport, LondonGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Byon Y-J, Shalaby A, Abdulhai B (2006) Travel time collection and traffic monitoring via GPS technologies. In: Proceedings of the 2006 IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Conference (ITSC 2006), Toronto, Canada, pp 677–682Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Camacho EF, Bordons C (1995) Model Predictive Control in the Process Industry. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cambridge Systematics, Inc. (2001) Twin Cities Ramp Meter Evaluation – Final Report. Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Oakland. Prepared for the Minnesota Department of TransportationGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Carsten O, Tate F (2001) Intelligent speed adaptation: The best collision avoidance system? In: Proceedings of the 17th International Technological Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles, Amsterdam, Netherlands, pp 1–10Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Carvell JD, Balke K Jr, Ullman J, Fitzpatrick K, Nowlin L, Brehmer C (1997) Freeway management handbook. Technical report. Federal Highway Administration, Department of Transport (FHWA, DOT), Washington DC, Report No. FHWA-SA-97-064Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Castello P, Coelho C, Ninno ED (1999) Traffic monitoring in motorways by real-time number plate recognition. In: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Image Analysis and Processing, Venice, Italy, pp 1129–1131Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chaudhary NA, Messer CJ (2000) Ramp metering technology and practice. Technical Report 2121-1. Texas Transportation Institute, The Texas A&M University System, College StationGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chen A, Yang H, Lo HK, Tang WH (2002) Capacity reliability of a road network: An assessment methodology and numerical results. Transp Res Part B 36(3):225–252Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chen OJ, Hotz AF, Ben-Akiva ME (1997) Development and evaluation of a dynamic ramp metering control model. In: Proceedings of the 8th IFAC/IFIP/IFORS Symposium on Transportation Systems, Chania, Greece, June 1997, pp 1162–1168Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chien C-C, Zhang Y, Ioannou PA (1997) Traffic density control for automated highway systems. Automatica 33(7):1273–1285Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cools M, Moons E, Wets G (2007) Investigating the effect of holidays on daily traffic counts: A time series approach. Transp Res Record 2019:22–31Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cuena J, Hernández J, Molina M (1995) Knowledge‐based models for adaptive traffic management systems. Transp Res Part C 3(5):311–337Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Daganzo CF (1994) The cell transmission model: A dynamic representation of highway traffic consistent with the hydrodynamic theory. Transp Res Part B 28B(4):269–287Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Daganzo CF (1996) The nature of freeway gridlock and how to prevent it. In: Lesort JB (ed) Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium of Transportation and Traffic Theory, Lyon, FranceGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Daganzo CF (1997) Fundamentals of Transportation and Traffic Operations. Pergamon, KidlingtonGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Di Febbraro A, Parisini T, Sacone S, Zoppoli R (2001) Neural approximations for feedback optimal control of freeway systems. IEEE Trans Veh Technol 50(1):302–312Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Diakaki C, Papageorgiou M, McLean T (2000) Integrated traffic‐responsive urban corridor control strategy in Glasgow, Scotland. Transp Res Rec 1727:101–111Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Elefteriadou L (1997) Freeway merging operations: A probabilistic approach. In: Proceedings of the 8th International Federation of Automatic Control (IFAC) Symposium on Transportation Systems, Chania, Greece, pp 1351–1356Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Federal Highway Administration, US Department of Transportation (1995) Detection Technology for IVHS – Final Report Addendum. Technical report. Federal Highway Administration, US Department of Transportation, Washington, Contract DTFH61-91-C-00076, Report No. FHWA-RD-96-109Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Federal Highway Administration, US Department of Transportation (1995) Detection Technology for IVHS – Task L Final Report. Technical report. Federal Highway Administration, US Department of Transportation, Washington, Contract DTFH61-91-C-00076, Report No. FHWA_RD-95-100Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Fenton RE (1994) IVHS/AHS: Driving into the future. IEEE Control Syst Mag 14(6):13–20Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gartner NH, Improta G (eds) (1995) Urban Traffic Networks – Dynamic Flow Modeling and Control. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gupta A, Maslanka VJ, Spring GS (1992) Development of prototype knowledge‐based expert system for managing congestion on massachusets turnpike. Transp Res Rec (1358):60–66Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hall FL, Agyemang-Duah K (1991) Freeway capacity drop and the definition of capacity. Transp Res Rec (1320):91–98Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hardman EJ (1996) Motorway speed control strategies using SISTM. In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Road Traffic Monitoring and Control. IEE Conference Publication, no 422. London, 23–25 April 1996, pp 169–172Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hasan M, Jha M, Ben-Akiva M (2002) Evaluation of ramp control algorithms using microscopic traffic simulation. Transp Res Part C 10:229–256Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hedrick JK, Tomizuka M, Varaiya P (1994) Control issues in automated highway systems. IEEE Control Syst Mag 14(6):21–32Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hegyi A, De Schutter B, Hellendoorn J (2005) Model predictive control for optimal coordination of ramp metering and variable speed limits. Transp Res Part C 13(3):185–209Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hegyi A, De Schutter B, Hellendoorn J (2005) Optimal coordination of variable speed limits to suppress shock waves. IEEE Trans Intell Transp Syst 6(1):102–112Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hegyi A, Girimonte D, Babuška R, De Schutter B (2006) A comparison of filter configurations for freeway traffic state estimation. In: Proceedings of the International IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems 2006, Toronto, Canada, 17–20 September 2006, pp 1029–1034Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Helbing D (1997) Verkehrsdynamik – Neue physikalische Modellierungskonzepte. Springer, BerlinzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hellinga B, Van Aerde M (1995) Examining the potential of using ramp metering as a component of an ATMS. Transp Res Record 1494:75–83Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hernández J, Cuena J, Molina M (1999) Real-time traffic management through knowledge‐based models: The TRYS approach. In: ERUDIT tutorial on Intelligent Traffic Management Models. Helsinki, Finland, 3 August 1999. http://www.erudit.de/erudit/events/tc-c/tut990803.htm. Accessed on 23 July 2008
  47. 47.
    Hoogendoorn SP (1997) Optimal control of dynamic route information panels. In: Proceedings of the 4th World Congress on Intelligent Transportation Systems, IFAC Transportation Systems, Chania, Greece, pp 399–404Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hoogendoorn SP, Bovy PHL (2000) Continuum modelling of multiclass traffic flow. Transp Res Part B 34:123–146Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Hoogendoorn SP, Bovy PHL (2001) State-of-the-art of vehicular traffic flow modelling. J Syst Control Eng – Proc Inst Mech Eng, Part I 215(14):283–303Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Hotz A, Much C, Goblick T, Corbet E, Waxman A, Ashok K, Ben-Akiva M, Koutsopoulos H (1992) A distributed, hierarchical system architecture for advanced traffic management systems and advanced traffic information systems. In: Proceedings of the Second Annual Meeting of IVHS AMERICA, Newport BeachGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    http://www.auto21.ca/index.php. Accessed on 23 July 2008
  52. 52.
    http://www.cvisproject.org/. Accessed on 23 July 2008
  53. 53.
  54. 54.
    http://www.path.berkeley.edu/. Accessed on 23 July 2008
  55. 55.
    Jacobson L, Henry K, Mehyar O (1989) Real-time metering algorithm for centralized control. Transp Res Record 1232:17–26Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Jiang G, Gang L, Cai Z (2006) Impact of probe vehicles sample size on link travel time estimation. In: Proceedings of the 2006 IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Conference (ITSC 2006), Toronto, Canada, 2006, pp 891–896Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Karimi A, Hegyi A, De Schutter B, Hellendoorn H, Middelham F (2004) Integration of dynamic route guidance and freeway ramp metering using model predictive control. In: Proceedings of the 2004 American Control Conference (ACC 2004), Boston, MA, USA, 30 June–2 July 2004, pp 5533–5538Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kell JH, Fullerton IJ, Mills MK (1990) Traffic Detector Handbook, Number FHWA-IP-90-002, 2nd edn. Federal Highway Administration, US Department of Transportation, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kerner BS (2002) Empirical features of congested patterns at highway bottlenecks. Transp Res Record (1802):145–154Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kerner BS (2004) The Physics of Traffic. Understanding Complex Systems. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Kerner BS (2007) Control of spatiotemporal congested traffic patterns at highway bottlenecks. IEEE Trans Intell Transp Syst 8(2):308–320MathSciNetADSGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kerner BS (2007) On-ramp metering based on three-phase traffic theory. Traffic Eng Control 48(1):28–35Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Klein LA, Kelley MR, Mills MK (1997) Evaluation of overhead and in‐ground vehicle detector technologies for traffic flow measurement. J Test Evaluation (JTEVA) 25(2):215–224Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Klein LA, Mills MK, Gibson DRP (2006) Traffic Detector Handbook, Number FHWA-HRT-06-108, 3rd edn. Federal Highway Administration, US Department of Transportation, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kotsialos A, Papageorgiou M (2005) A hierarchical ramp metering control scheme for freeway networks. In: Proceedings of the American Control Conference, Portland, OR, USA, 8–10 June 2005, pp 2257–2262Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kotsialos A, Papageorgiou M, Middelham F (2001) Optimal coordinated ramp metering with advanced motorway optimal control. In: Proceedings of the 80th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, vol 3125. Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Kotsialos A, Papageorgiou M, Mangeas M, Haj-Salem H (2002) Coordinated and integrated control of motorway networks via non‐linear optimal control. Transp Res C 10(1):65–84Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Kraan M, van der Zijpp N, Tutert B, Vonk T, van Megen D (1999) Evaluating networkwide effects of variable message signs in the netherlands. Transp Res Record 1689:60–67Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Kühne RD (1991) Freeway control using a dynamic traffic flow model and vehicle reidentification techniques. Transp Res Record 1320:251–259Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Lee HY, Lee H-W, Kim D (1999) Empirical phase diagram of traffic flow on highways with on-ramps. In: Helbing D, Herrmann HJ, Schreckenberg M, Wolf DE (eds) Traffic and Granular Flow '99. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Lenz H, Sollacher R, Lang M (2001) Standing waves and the influence of speed limits. In: Proceedings of the European Control Conference 2001, Porto, Portugal, pp 1228–1232Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Levinson D, Zhang L (2006) Ramp meters on trial: Evidence from the twin cities metering holiday. Transp Res Part A 40A:810–828Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Lewis FL (1992) Applied Optimal Control and Estimation. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle RiverGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Li PY, Horowitz R, Alvarez L, Frankel J, Robertson AM (1995) Traffic flow stabilization. In: Proceedings of the American Control Conference, Seattle, Washington, June 1995, pp 144–149Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Lighthill MJ, Whitham GB (1955) On kinematic waves, II. A theory of traffic flow on long crowded roads. Proc Royal Soc 229A(1178):317–345MathSciNetADSGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Lin P-W, Chang G-L (2007) A generalized model and solution algorithm for estimation of the dynamic freeway origin‐destination matrix. Transp Res Part B, 41B:554–572Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Little R, Rubin D (1987) Handbook of Transportation Science. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Lo HK, Luo XW, Siu BWY (2006) Degradable transport network: Travel time budget of travelers with heterogeneous risk aversion. Transp Res Part B 40(9):792–806Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Maciejowski JM (2002) Predictive Control with Constraints. Prentice Hall, HarlowGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Maerivoet S, De Moor B (2005) Cellular automata models of road traffic. Phys Rep 419(1):1–64MathSciNetADSGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    May AD (1990) Traffic Flow Fundamentals. Prentice Hall, Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    McDonald M, Hounsell NB, Njoze SR (1995) Strategies for route guidance systems taking account of driver response. In: Proceedings of 6th Vehicle Navigation and Information Systems Conference, Seattle, WA, July 1995, pp 328–333Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Middelham F (1999) A synthetic study of the network effects of ramp metering. Technical report. Transport Research Centre (AVV), Dutch Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, RotterdamGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Middelham F (2003) State of practice in dynamic traffic management in The Netherlands. In: Proceedings of the 10th IFAC Symposium on Control in Transportation Systems (CTS 2003), Tokyo, Japan, August 2003Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Middleton D, Gopalakrishna D, Raman M (2002) Advances in traffic data collection and management. Technical Report BAT-02-006. Texas Transportation Institute, Cambridge Systematics Inc., Washington. http://www.itsdocs.fhwa.dot.gov/JPODOCS/REPTS_TE/13766.html. Accessed on 23 July 2008
  86. 86.
    Molina M, Hernández J, Cuena J (1998) A structure of problem‐solving methods for real-time decision support in traffic control. Int J Human-Computer Stud 49:577–600Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Papageorgiou M (1980) A new approach to time-of-day control based on a dynamic freeway traffic model. Transp Res Part B, 14B:349–360Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Papageorgiou M (1983) A hierarchical control system for freeway traffic. Transp Res Part B, 17B(3):251–261Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Papageorgiou M (1998) Some remarks on macroscopic traffic flow modelling. Transp Res Part A 32(5):323–329Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Papageorgiou M (ed) (1991) Concise Encyclopedia of Traffic & Transportation Systems. PergamonGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Papageorgiou M, Kotsialos A (2000) Freeway ramp metering: An overview. In: Proceedings of the 3rd Annual IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC 2000), Dearborn, Michigan, USA, October 2000, pp 228–239Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Papageorgiou M, Kotsialos A (2002) Freeway ramp metering: An overview. IEEE Trans Intell Transp Syst 3(4):271–280Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Papageorgiou M, Messmer A (1991) Dynamic network traffic assignment and route guidance via feedback regulation. Transp Res Rec 1306:49–58Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Papageorgiou M, Blosseville J-M, Hadj-Salem H (1990) Modelling and real-time control of traffic flow on the southern part of Boulevard Périphérique in Paris: Part I: Modelling. Transp Res Part A, 24A(5):345–359Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Papageorgiou M, Blosseville J-M, Hadj-Salem H (1990) Modelling and real-time control of traffic flow on the southern part of Boulevard Périphérique in Paris: Part II: Coordinated on-ramp metering. Transp Res Part A, 24A(5):361–370Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Papageorgiou M, Hadj-Salem H, Blosseville J-M (1991) ALINEA: A local feedback control law for on-ramp metering. Transp Res Rec (1320):58–64Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Papageorgiou M, Hadj-Salem H, Middelham F (1997) ALINEA local ramp metering – summary of field results. Transp Res Rec 1603:90–98Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Papageorgiou M, Wang Y, Kosmatopoulos E, Papamichail I (2007) ALINEA maximizes motorway throughput – An answer to flawed criticism. Traffic Eng Control 48(6):271–276Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Payne HJ (1971) Models of freeway traffic and control. Simul Counc Proc 1:51–61Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Rees I (1995) Orbital decongestant. Highways 63(5):17–18MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Rees T, Harbord B, Dixon C, Abou-Rhame N (2004) Speed‐control and incident detection on the M25 controlled motorway (summary of results 1995–2002). Technical Report PPR033, TRL (UK's Transport Research Laboratory), WokinghamGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Richards PI (1956) Shock waves on the highway. Oper Res 4:42–51MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Ritchie SG (1990) A knowledge‐based decision support architecture for advanced traffic management. Transp Res Part A, 24A(1):27–37Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Schik P (2003) Einfluss von Streckenbeeinflussungsanlagen auf die Kapazität von Autobahnabschnitten sowie die Stabilität des Verkehrsflusses. Ph.D. Thesis, Universität StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Shladover SE, Desoer CA, Hedrick JK, Tomizuka M, Walrand J, Zhang WB, McMahon DH, Peng H, Sheikholesham S, McKeown N (1991) Automatic vehicle control developments in the PATH program. IEEE Trans Veh Technol 40(1):114–130Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Sisiopiku VP (2001) Variable speed control: Technologies and practice. In: Proceedings of the 11th Annual Meeting of ITS America, Miami, pp 1–11Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Slotine JE, Li W (1991) Applied Nonlinear Control. Prentice Hall, New JerseyzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Smith BL, Zhang H, Fontaine MD, Green MW (2004) Wireless location technology based traffic monitoring: Critical assessment and evaluation of an early‐generation system. J Transp Eng 130(5):576–584Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Smulders S (1990) Control of freeway traffic flow by variable speed signs. Transp Res Part B, 24B(2):111–132Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Smulders SA, Helleman DE (1998) Variable speed control: State-of-the-art and synthesis. In: Road Transport Information and Control, number 454 in Conference Publication, IEE, 21–23 April 1998, pp 155–159Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Soriguera F, Thorson L, Robuste F (2007) Travel time measurement using toll infrastructure. In: Proceedings of the 86th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, CDROM paper 07-1389.pdfGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Taylor CJ, Young PC, Chotai A, Whittaker J (1998) Nonminimal state space approach to multivariable ramp metering control of motorway bottlenecks. IEE Proc – Control Theory Appl 146(6):568–574Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Taylor MAP (1999) Dense network traffic models, travel time reliability and traffic management. I: General introduction. J Adv Transp 33(2):218–233Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Taylor MAP (1999) Dense network traffic models, travel time reliability and traffic management. II: Application to network reliability. J Adv Transp 33(2):235–251Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Taylor MAP, Woolley JE, Zito R (2000) Integration of the global positioning system and geographical information systems for traffic congestion studies. Transp Res Part C, 8C:257–285Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Transportation Research Board (1998) Managing speed: Review of current practice for setting and enforcing speed limits. In: TRB Special Report 254, Transportation Research Board, Committee for Guidance on Setting and Enforcing Speed Limits. National Academy Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Treiber M, Hennecke A, Helbing D (2000) Congested traffic states in empirical observations and microscopic simulation. Phys Rev E 62:1805–1824ADSGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Tsugawa S, Kato S, Tokuda K, Matsui T, Fujii H (2000) An architecture for cooperative driving of automated vehicles. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Intelligent Transportation Symposium, Dearborn, MI, USA 2000, pp 422–427Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Vahidi A, Eskandarian A (2003) Research advances in intelligent collision avoidance and adaptive cruise control. IEEE Trans Intell Transp Syst 4(3):143–153Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    van Arem B, van Driel CJG, Visser R (2006) The impacts of cooperative adaptive cruise control on traffic‐flow characteristics. IEEE Trans Intell Transp Syst (4):429–436Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    van den Berg M, Bellemans T, De Schutter B, De Moor B, Hellendoorn J (2005) Control of traffic with anticipative ramp metering. In: Proceedings of the 84th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington DC, 2005 CDROM paper 05-0252, pp 166–174Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    van den Hoogen E, Smulders S (1994) Control by variable speed signs: Results of the Dutch experiment. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Road Traffic Monitoring and Control, IEE Conference Publication No. 391, London, England, 26–28 April 1994, pp 145–149Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Varaiya P (1993) Smart cars on smart roads: Problems of control. IEEE Trans Autom Control 38(2):195–207MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Wang Y, Papageorgiou M (2005) Real-time freeway traffic state estimation based on extended Kalman filter: A general approach. Transp Res Part B 39(2):141–167Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Wang Y, Papageorgiou M, Messmer A (2003) A predictive feedback routing control strategy for freeway network traffic. In: Proceedings of the 82nd Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington DC, January 2003Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Wang Y, Papageorgiou M, Messmer A (2006) RENAISSANCE A unified macroscopic model-based approach to real-time freeway network traffic surveillance. Transp Res Part C, 14C:190–212Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Wattleworth JA (1965) Peak‐period analysis and control of a freeway system. Highw Res Rec 157:1–21Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Wilkie JK (1997) Using variable speed limit signs to mitigate speed differentials upstream of reduced flow locations. Technical report. Department of Civil Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, Prepared for CVEN 677 Advanced Surface Transportation Systems, Report No. SWUTC/97/72840-00003-2Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Williams B (1996) Highway control. IEE Rev 42(5):191–194Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Wolf DE (1999) Cellular automata for traffic simulations. Physica A 263:438–451MathSciNetADSGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Zhang H, Ritchie SG (1994) Real-time decision‐support system for freeway management and control. J Comput Civ Eng 8(1):35–51Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Zhang L (2007) Traffic diversion effect of ramp metering at the individual and system levels. In: Proceedings of the 86th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington DC, January 2007, CDROM paper 07-2087Google Scholar

Books and Reviews

  1. 133.
    We refer the interested reader to the following referencesGoogle Scholar
  2. 134.
    in the various fields that have been discussed in thischapter:Google Scholar
  3. 135.
    Control: General introduction [4], optimal control [73], model predictive control [15,79], nonlinear control [107],Google Scholar
  4. 136.
    Traffic flow modeling: General overviews [48,49], cell transmission model [26], Kerner's three-phase theory [60], microscopic simulation models [2], cellular automata [80],Google Scholar
  5. 137.
    Ramp metering: Overviews of ramp metering strategies [18,91], field test and simulation studies [39],Google Scholar
  6. 138.
    Speed limit systems: Overviews of practical speed limit systems [106,128],Google Scholar
  7. 139.
    Intelligent vehicles: Overview [10],Google Scholar
  8. 140.
    Sensor technologies: Overviews [32,33,63,64]Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Hegyi
    • 1
  • T. Bellemans
    • 2
  • B. De Schutter
    • 1
  1. 1.TU DelftDelftThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Hasselt UniversityDiepenbeekBelgium