Reference Work Entry

Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science

pp 3142-3176

Evacuation Dynamics: Empirical Results, Modeling and Applications

  • Andreas SchadschneiderAffiliated withInstitut für Theoretische Physik, Universität zu KölnInterdisziplinäres Zentrum für Komplexe Systeme
  • , Wolfram KlingschAffiliated withInstitute for Building Material Technology and Fire Safety Science, University of Wuppertal
  • , Hubert KlüpfelAffiliated withTraffGo HT GmbH
  • , Tobias KretzAffiliated withPTV Planung Transport Verkehr AG
  • , Christian RogschAffiliated withInstitute for Building Material Technology and Fire Safety Science, University of Wuppertal
  • , Armin SeyfriedAffiliated withJülich Supercomputing Centre, Research Centre Jülich

Definition of the Subject

Today, there are many occasions on which a large number of people gathers in a rather small area. Office buildings and apartment housesgrow larger and more complex. Very large events related to sports, entertainment or cultural and religious events are held all over the world ona regular basis. This brings about serious safety issues for the participants and for the organizers who must be prepared for any case of emergencyor critical situation. Usually in such cases the participants must be guided away from the dangerous area as quickly as possible. Therefore theunderstanding of the dynamics of large groups of people is very important.

In general, evacuation is egress from an area, a building or a vessel due toa potential or actual threat. In the cases described above, the dynamics of the evacuation processes are quite complex due to the large number ofpeople and their interaction, external factors such as fire, complex building geometries, etc. Evacua ...

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