Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science

2009 Edition
| Editors: Robert A. Meyers (Editor-in-Chief)

Earthquake Nucleation Process

  • Yoshihisa Iio
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-30440-3_154

Definition of the Subject

Earthquake prediction in the long, intermediate, and short terms is essential for the reduction of earthquake disasters. However, it is notpractical at present, in particular, for the intermediate and short time scales of a few days to years. This is mainly because we do not know exactlyhow and why earthquakes begin and grow larger or stop. Theoretical and laboratory studies have confirmed that earthquakes do not begin abruptly withdynamic rupture propagation. They show that a quasi‐static rupture growth precedes dynamic rupture. Thus, if we can detect thequasi‐static rupture growth, we could forecast the following dynamic rupture. A key issue is how natural earthquakes initiate. To solve thisissue, a first approach would be to investigate the very beginning parts of observed waveforms of earthquakes, since they can reflect the earthquakenucleation process from a quasi‐static to a dynamic rupture. This paper reviews the studies analyzing the beginning parts...

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Notes

Acknowledgments

The project in the Western Nagano Prefecture is a co‐operative study with Shigeki Horiuchi, Shiro Ohmi, Hisao Ito, Yasuto Kuwahara,Eiji Yamamoto, Kentaro Omura, Koichi Miura, Bun'ichiro Shibazaki, and Haruo Sato. We thank James Mori and Masumi Yamada for their critical reviews of themanuscript. This work is partly supported by JSPS.KAKENHI (19204043), Japan. We are grateful for two anonymous reviewers for their critical andthoughtful comments.

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© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yoshihisa Iio
    • 1
  1. 1.Disaster Prevention Research InstituteKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan