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Role and Regulation of Copper and Zinc Transport Proteins in the Central Nervous System

  • C. W. Levenson
  • N. M. Tassabehji
Reference work entry

Abstract:

The trace elements copper and zinc are essential for the molecular and physiological functions of the central nervous system (CNS). These cations act as cofactors for enzymes that regulate every aspect of CNS function, including neuronal development and plasticity, neurotransmitter synthesis and processing, cellular metabolism and energy production, and gene expression. Imbalances in zinc have been associated with a variety of clinical disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease. Zinc has also been implicated in the neuronal damage and death associated with ischemia, seizure disorders, and brain trauma. Genetic disorders characterized by copper toxicity and copper deficiency have severe neurological consequences. Thus, it is important that subcellular copper and zinc balance be maintained precisely. This task is accomplished by several families of metal-specific transport proteins. For each metal, this chapter will begin with a brief introduction to the role of this metal in the CNS. This will be followed by the function and regulation of the known transport proteins involved in cellular uptake, intracellular trafficking, and cellular export in the CNS. There will also be discussions of the clinical implications of zinc and copper transporter abnormalities as well as the possible ways that an understanding of these transporters could lead to the development of new treatments for a variety of neurological disorders.

Keywords

Zinc Deficiency Zinc Transporter Central Nervous System Function Free Zinc Cellular Zinc 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of Abbreviations:

AD

Alzheimer's disease

AE

acrodermatitis enteropathica

AMPA

alpha‐amino‐3‐hydroxy‐5‐methyl‐4‐isoxazolepropionic acid glutamate receptor

ATP7A

Menkes protein, MNK

ATP7B

Wilsons protein, WND

BSE

bovine spongiform encephalopathy

CCK

cholecystokinin

CCO

cytochrome c oxidase

CCS

copper chaperone for SOD

CJD

Creutzfeldt‐Jakob disease

CNS

central nervous system

Cp

ceruloplasmin

Cu

copper

DβM

dopamine beta monooxygenase

DMT1

divalent metal transporter‐1

FKBP52

FK506‐binding protein 52

GABA

gamma‐aminobutyric acid

GABAA

GABAA receptor

Glu

glutamate

GnRH

gonadotropin‐releasing hormone

GPI

glycosylphosphatidylinositol

LZT

LIV‐1 subfamily of ZIP zinc transporters

MMP

matrix metalloproteinase protein

MNK

Menkes protein, ATP7A

MSH

melanocortin stimulating hormone

MT

metallothionein

NMDA

N‐methyl‐d‐aspartate glutamate receptor

NPY

neuropeptide Y

NRF

nuclear respiratory factor

PAM

peptidylglycine α‐amidating monooxygenase

SOD

superoxide dismutase

TGN

trans‐Golgi network

TRH

thyrotropin‐releasing hormone

VGCaC

Voltage‐gated calcium channels

VIP

vasoactive intestinal polypeptide

WND

Wilsons disease protein, APT7B

ZIP

Zrt/Irt‐like proteins

Zn

zinc

ZnT

zinc transporter

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2007

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  • C. W. Levenson
  • N. M. Tassabehji

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