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Brain Phosphatidylserine: Metabolism and Functions

  • R. Mozzi
  • S. Buratta
Reference work entry

Abstract:

Phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) is involved in cell signaling and apoptosis. In the brain, PtdSer is enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Numerous studies have indicated that the abundance of DHA in the brain is essential for optimal neuronal function. PtdSer concentration in the nervous tissue membranes varies with age, brain areas, cell type and subcellular components. PtdSer is synthesized by base exchange between free serine and the nitrogen base present in phosphatidylethanolamine or phosphatidylcholine. The capability to synthesize PtdSer by base exchange varies with cell types, subcellular fractions and developmental stage. At least two isoforms of PtdSer synthesizing enzymes are present in brain. PtdSer cellular levels also depend on its decarboxylation to phosphatidylethanolamine or conversion to lysoPtdSer by phospholipases. The mechanisms regulating PtdSer synthesis and degradation are still not defined. Thus, the role of PtdSer in cell signaling and apoptosis cannot be clearly established at molecular level. Several reports indicate that alteration in PtdSer synthesis might participate to development of brain damage.

Keywords

Base Exchange Brain Mitochondrion Brain Membrane Brain Microsome Synaptosomal Plasma Membrane 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of Abbreviations:

BEE

base exchange enzyme

CGC

cerebellar granule cells

CHO

Chinese hamster ovary

DHA

docosahexaenoic acid

lysoPtdSer

lysophosphatidylserine

PLA1

phospholipase A1

PLA2

phospholipase A2

PtdCho

phosphatidylcholine

PtdEtn

phosphatidylethanolamine

PtdIns(4,5)P2

phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate

PtdIns(3,4,5)P3

phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate

PtdSer

phosphatidylserine

PSD

PtdSer decarboxylase

PSS

PtdSer synthase

[S]SBEE

serine base exchange enzyme specific for serine

[SE]SBEE

serine/ethanolamine base exchange enzyme

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

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  • R. Mozzi
  • S. Buratta

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