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Lipids in Alzheimer’s Disease Brain

  • D. A. Butterfield
  • H. M. Abdul

Abstract:

Lipids are important biological molecules. The lipids of physiological importance for humans have four major functions: (1) structural components of biological membranes; (2) energy reserves, predominantly in the form of triacylglycerols; (3) both lipids and lipid derivatives serve as vitamins and hormones, and (4) lipophilic bile acids aid in lipid solubilization. Fatty acids fill two major roles in the body: as the components of more complex membrane lipids and as the major components of stored fat in the form of triacylglycerols. Alterations in lipid structure and/or metabolism lead to many neurodegenerative diseases, among which Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is of great concern due to the increasing life-span of the world’s population. Additionally, altered cholesterol metabolism, modulation in phospholipid content, and phospholipid asymmetry in plasma membranes may play pivotal role in the progression of AD. Amyloid β-peptide [Aβ (1–42)] plays a central role in the pathogenesis of AD. Aβ (1–42) is heavily deposited in the brains of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients, and free radical oxidative stress of neuronal lipids is extensive. Research by our group and others suggests that this observation is linked to Aβ-induced oxidative stress in AD brain. This chapter summarizes current knowledge on lipid alterations in AD brain, one potential cause of the external oxidative stress in AD brain, and the consequences of Aβ-induced lipid peroxidation in this neurodegenerative disorder.

Keywords

Lipid Peroxidation Mild Cognitive Impairment Lipid Raft Phosphatidic Acid PLA2 Activity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of Abbreviations:

AD

Alzheimer’s disease

Aβ(1-42)

amyloid beta-peptide

PtdSer

Phosphatidylserine

PtdEtn

Phosphatidylethanolamine

PtdIns

phosphatidylinositol

PtdCho

phosphatidylcholine

GEM

glycosphingolipid-enriched membranes

RBC

red blood cells

i-NOS

inducible nitric oxide synthase

GPC

glycerophosphatidylcholine

GPE

glycerophosphatidylethanolamine

sPLA2

Ca2+ -dependent secretory phospholipase A2;  cPLA2, Ca2+ -dependent cytosolic phospholipase A2

iPLA2

Ca2+ -independent phospholipase A2

HNE

4-hydroxy-2-nonenal

DAG

diacylglycerol

NCT

nicastrin

βaPP

β-amyloid precursor protein

TBARS

thiobarbituric acid reactive substances

IsoPs

isoprostanes

NPs

neuroprostanes

PG

prostaglandin

LV

levuglandins

NeuroKs

neuroketals

NFT

neurofibrillary tangles

SP

senile plaques

FAEE

ferulic acid ethyl ester

MCL

mild cognitive impairment

ROS

reactive oxygen species

RNS

reactive nitrogen species

Notes

Acknowledgment

This work was supported, in part, by NIH (NIA) grants to D. A. B.

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. A. Butterfield
  • H. M. Abdul

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