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Functional Dynamics of Myelin Lipids*

  • S. N. Fewou
  • N. Jackman
  • G. van Meer
  • R. Bansal
  • S. E. Pfeiffer

Abstract:

Biological membranes of living organism are composed of two fundamental components: proteins and lipids. Lipids are defined as water-insoluble biomolecules, which have high solubility in nonpolar organic solvents. They account for more than half of the total mass of myelin, which is an extension of oligodendrocyte plasma membrane that spirally enwraps axons and is critical for efficient nerve conduction. Because of the high lipid content of myelin, in particular glycosphingolipids and cholesterol, it was thought to play a central role in myelin/oligodendrocyte physiology. This view has been strongly supported by multiple approaches, most prominently the gene knockout studies that have significantly enhanced our understanding and appreciation of lipids in the overall function and structure of the CNS myelin. This chapter discusses the role of lipids in the regulation of myelin/oligodendrocyte physiology including oligodendrocyte development, myelin biogenesis and maintenance, and sorting and transport of myelin components.

Keywords

Peripheral Nervous System Myelin Sheath Sphingoid Base Myelin Membrane Myelin Lipid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of Abbreviations:

ABC

ATP-binding cassette

CNP

2′,3′-cyclic nucleotide 3′-phosphodiesterase

CNS

central nervous system

CST

cerebroside sulfotransferase

DHAP

dihydroxyacetone-phosphate

GalCer

galactosylceramide

GD1a

Neu5Acα3Galβ3GalNAcβ4-(Neu5Acα3)Galβ4GlcCer

GD1b

Galβ3GalNAcβ4(Neu5Acα8Neu5Acα3)Galβ4-GlcCer

GD2

GalNAcβ4-(Neu5Acα8Neu5Acα3)Galβ4GlcCer

GD3

Neu5Acα8Neu5Acα3Galβ4GlcCer

GlcCer

glucosylceramide

GM1a

Galβ3GalNAcβ4(Neu5Acα3)Galβ4GlcCer

GM1b

Neu5Acα3Galβ3GalNAcβ4Galβ4GlcCer

GM2

GalNAcβ4(Neu5Acα3)Galβ4GlcCer

GM3

Neu5Acα3Galβ4GlcCer

GM4

N-acetylneuraminylgalactosylceramide

GQ1b

Neu5Acα8Neu5Acα3Galβ3GalNAcβ4(Neu5Acα8Neu5Acα3)Galβ4GlcCer

Gro-3P

glycerol-3-phosphate

GT1a

Neu5Acα8Neu5Acα3Galβ3GalNAcβ4(Neu5Acα3)Galβ4GlcCer

GT1b

Neu5Acα3-Galβ3GalNAcβ4(Neu5Acα8Neu5Acα3)Galβ4GlcCer

GT1c

Galβ3GalNAcβ4(Neu5Acα8Neu5Acα8Neu5Acα3)Galβ4GlcCer

HMG-CoA

3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA

MAG

myelin-associated glycoprotein

MBP

myelin basic protein

MDR

multidrug resistant protein

MGDG

monogalactosyl-diacylglycerol

MOG

myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein

NeuAc

N-acetylneuraminic acid

PLP

proteolipid protein

PNS

peripheral nervous system

SialT

sialyltransferase

SPTLCB

serine palmitoyltransferase long-chain base

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank Dr. Martin R. Schiller (UConn Health Center) for useful suggestions during the writing and correction of this chapter. We also acknowledge the support of the National Institutes of Health through the grant NS10861.

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. N. Fewou
  • N. Jackman
  • G. van Meer
  • R. Bansal
  • S. E. Pfeiffer

There are no affiliations available

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