Skip to main content
Book cover

Geochemistry pp 232–233Cite as

Equilibrium

  • Reference work entry
  • 2182 Accesses

Part of the Encyclopedia of Earth Science book series (EESS)

The state of equilibrium is a common feature of all branches of physical science. It plays an important role when either chemical, mechanical or electromagnetic phenomena are described. Three examples emphasizing chemical applications must suffice. Analytical and preparative chemists use equilibrium considerations to select the temperature and concentration ranges best suited for their work. Chemical and metallurgical processes are often designed on the basis of equilibrium calculations. Moreover, equilibrium models for distribution of species in natural waters are frequently applied by geochemists.

As originally demonstrated by Gibbs, the concept of equilibrium is described in an entirely general way by classical thermodynamics (Gibbs, 1875). Let us consider the contemporary treatment also based on the second law and using modern nomenclature given by McGlashan (1979):

If a spontaneous process occurs in an isolated system Σ consisting of one or more phases α β ..., the entropy S...

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/1-4020-4496-8_116
  • Chapter length: 2 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   569.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-1-4020-4496-0
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Hardcover Book
USD   549.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)

Bibliography

  • Gibbs, J. W. (1875) On the equilibrium of heterogeneous substances, in The Collected Works of J. Willard Gibbs. volume I: Thermodynamics. New Haven: Yale University Press. Reprinted 1948, P. 56.

    Google Scholar 

  • McGlashan, M. L. (1979) Chemical Thermodynamics. London: Academic Press, 345 pp.

    Google Scholar 

Cross references

Download references

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 1998 Kluwer Academic Publishers

About this entry

Cite this entry

Gamsjäger, H. (1998). Equilibrium . In: Geochemistry. Encyclopedia of Earth Science. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/1-4020-4496-8_116

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/1-4020-4496-8_116

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Dordrecht

  • Print ISBN: 978-0-412-75500-2

  • Online ISBN: 978-1-4020-4496-0

  • eBook Packages: Springer Book Archive