Encyclopedia of Operations Research and Management Science

2001 Edition
| Editors: Saul I. Gass, Carl M. Harris

Research and development

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/1-4020-0611-X_883


Products and services have a finite life cycle, and the speed with which they go through their life cycle stages has been continuously increasing. Through the functions in an organization called research and development (R&D), new products and services are developed, existing ones are improved, and the respective transformation processes are improved to increase efficiency and minimize cost.

The worldwide distribution of R&D performance is highly concentrated in several industrialized nations. Of all the countries belonging to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), only seven of them (the United States, Japan, Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Canada, and Italy) spend about 90% of the total R&D expenditures. In 1993, the United States spent more than the next four largest performers (Japan, Germany, France, and the United Kingdom) combined. How-ever, in the early 1990s, total R&D expenditures stagnated or declined in each of the largest...

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© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of MassachusettsBostonUSA