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A collection of multi-server queueing systems or nodes with exponential service and Markovian or memoryless probabilistic routing of departures from one node to the others. If there are customers arriving from outside the network to individual nodes in Poisson streams, the network is said to open; otherwise it is closed. All customers who arrive from outside to an open network must eventually leave after receiving service at one or more systems within the network. Networks of queues; Queueing theory.