Encyclopedia of Operations Research and Management Science

2001 Edition
| Editors: Saul I. Gass, Carl M. Harris


Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/1-4020-0611-X_281


Electronic Commerce (EC) has arisen because of rapid improvements in electronic and Information Systems (IS) technology, changes in organizational practice, and local laws, treaties, and international standards governing or affecting the movement of goods and data over borders (transborder data flow). The definition of EC may be derived from that of normal commerce, as follows:

Commerce(noun): the exchange or buying and selling of commodities on a large scale involving transportation from place to place—Merriam-Webster

Electronic Commerce:

The use of information technology in providing an infrastructure with interfaces that allow communication for business and personal purposes

The buying, selling, and exchanging of information, products, and services via an electronic network (generally the Internet, Intranet, and its extensions).

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. [1]
    Arquilla, J. and Ronfeldt, D. (1997). In Athena's Camp: Preparing for Conflict in the Information Age, RAND — National Defense Research Institute, Santa Monica, California.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Chung, E-S. and Dardailler, D. (1998). Joint Electronic Payment Initiative (JEPI), White Paper. Available through http://www.w3.org/ECommerce/white-paper. Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Commerce Net (1998). Internet Usage Statistics: Electronic Commerce. Available through http://www.commerce.net/research/stats/indust.html#ec. Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Intelliquest (1998). Latest Intelliquest Survey Reports 62 Million American Adults Access the Internet/Online Services, Press Release 41. Available through http://www.intelliquest.com/about/release41.htm. Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Mougayar, W. (1996). “Agents at Your Service: Intelligent Agent Software Will Give Consumers the Upper Hand in Net Transactions,” Marketing Magazine, September, CYBER Management Inc. Available through http://www.cyberm.com/market.htm. Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Mougayar, W. (1998). “Seeing the New Landscape of E-commerce,” LANTIMES, Available through http://www.cyberm.com/lantime5.htm. Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Schwartz, E.I. (1997). Webonomics: Nine Essential Principles for Growing Your Business on The World Wide Web, Broadway Books, New York.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Unattributed (1997a). Electronic Commerce Insecurity?, 1997 Available from the University of Missouri, St. Louis, at http://www.umsl.edu/~951657/ccard.htm. Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Unattributed (1997b). “Doing Business on the Web,” The Globe and Mail, 29 August. Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    Unattributed (1997c). “The Web Gets Down to Business,” Fortune. Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Verisign Corporation (1998). Digital Ids for Servers, White Paper. Available through http://www.versign.com/products/sites/serverauth.html. Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.George Mason UniversityFairfaxUSA