New Members of the Family Enterobacteriaceae

  • J. Michael Janda

In the last edition of this chapter, Don Brenner (Brenner, 1991) wrote:

“They are, nonetheless, important for a variety of reasons. They have innate importance as members of the family, to be compared and contrasted with their relatives, in attempts to define the phenotypic, phylogenetic, and ecological boundaries of the family.”

No words better define the current edition of this chapter as the number of genera of Enterobacteriaceae has risen 60%, from 15 to 24 (excluding Raoultella). This current list of 24 genera does not even include such organisms as Alterococcus agarolyticus and Saccharobacter fermentatus, taxa that are not formally discussed in this chapter, although they possess some characteristics associated with the family Enterobacteriaceae (Yaping et al., 1990; Shieh and Jean, 1998).

The exponential increase in new genera within the family Enterobacteriaceae has been fueled by molecular biology, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology and 16S (small subunit)...


Type Strain Ornithine Decarboxylase Enteric Group Arginine Dihydrolase Enterobacterial Common Antigen 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Literature Cited

  1. Abbott, S. L., and J. M. Janda. 1994 Isolation of Yokenella regensburgei (“Koserella trabulsii”) from a patient with transient bacteremia and from a patient with a septic knee J. Clin. Microbiol. 32 2854–2855PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Aguilera, A., J. Pasqual, E. Loza, J. Lopez, G. Garcia, F. Liaño, C. Quereda, and J. Ortuño. 1995 Bacteraemia with Cedecea neteri in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus Postgrad. Med. J. 71 179–180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Akhurst, R. J. 1983 Taxonomic study of Xenorhabdus, a genus of bacteria symbiotically associated with insect pathogenic nematodes Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 33 38–45Google Scholar
  4. Akhurst, R. J., and N. E. Boemare. 1988 A numerical taxonomic study of the genus Xenorhabdus (Enterobacteriaceae) and proposed elevation of the subspecies of X. nematophilus to species J. Gen. Microbiol. 134 1835–1845PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Akhurst, R. J., R. G. Mourant, L. Baud, and N. Boemare. 1996 Phenotypic and DNA relatedness between nematode symbionts and clinical strains of the genus Photorhabdus (Enterobacteriaceae) Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 46 1034–1041PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Aksoy, S. 1995a Wigglesworthia gen. nov. and Wigglesworthia glossinidia sp. nov., taxa consisting of the mycetocyte-associated, primary endosymbionts of tsetse flies Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 45 848–851PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Aksoy, S., A. A. Pourhosseini, and A. Chow. 1995b Mycetome endosymbionts of tsetse flies constitute a distinct lineage related to Enterobacteriaceae Insect Molec. Biol. 4 15–22Google Scholar
  8. Aksoy, S., X. Chen, and V. Hypsa. 1997 Phylogeny and potential transmission routes of midgut-associated endosymbionts of tsetse (Diptera: Glossinidae) Insect Molec. Biol. 6 183–190Google Scholar
  9. Alballaa, S. R., S. M. H. Qadri, O. Al-Furayh, and K. Al-Qatary. 1992 Urinary tract infection due to Rahnella aquatilis in a renal transplant patient J. Clin. Microbiol. 30 2948–2950PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Alcorn, S. M., T. V. Orum, A. G. Steigerwalt, J. L. M. Foster, J. C. Fogelman, and D. J. Brenner. 1991 Taxonomy and pathogenicity of Erwinia caticida sp. nov Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 41 197–212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Aldová, E., O. Hausner, and M. Gabrhelova. 1984 Budvicia—a new genus of Enterobacteriaceae: Data on phenotypic characters J. Hyg. Epidemiol. Microbiol. Immunol. 28 234–237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Aldová, E., O. Hausner, D. J. Brenner, D. Kocmoud, J. Schindler, B. Potuníková, and P. Petrá. 1988 Pragia fontium gen. nov., sp. nov. of the family Enterobacteriaceae, isolated from water Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 38 183–189Google Scholar
  13. Aragño, H. D., and G. Vianna. 1913 Pesquizas sobre o granuloma venereo Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 5 211–238Google Scholar
  14. Asai, T., K. Aida, Z. Sugisaki, and N. Yakeishgi. 1955 On α-ketoglutaric acid fermentation J. Gen. Microbiol. 1 308–346Google Scholar
  15. Asai, T., H. Iizuka, and K. Komagata. 1962 The flagellation of the genus Kluyvera J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol. 8 187–191Google Scholar
  16. Astagneau, P., S. Gottot, Y. Gobin, P. Bocquet, C. Gatignol, P. Jouvet, and G. Brücker. 1994 Nosocomial outbreak of Enterobacter agglomerans pseudobacteraemia associated with non-sterile blood collection tubes J. Hosp. Infect. 27 73–74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bae, B. H. C., and S. B. Sureka. 1983 Cedecea davisae isolated from scrotal abscess J. Urol. 130 148–149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bangert, R. L., A. C. S. Ward, E. H. Stauber, B. R. Cho, and P. R. Widders. 1988 A survey of the aerobic bacteria in the feces of captive raptors Avian Dis. 32 53–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bastian, I., and F. J. Bowden. 1996 Amplification of Klebsiella-like sequences from biopsy samples from patients with donovanosis Clin. Infect. Dis. 23 1328–1330PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Baumann, P., L. Baumann, C.-Y. Lai, D. Rouhbakhsh, N. A. Morgan, and M. A. Clark. 1995 Genetics, physiology, and evolutionary relationships of the genus Buchnera: Intracellular symbionts of aphids Ann. Rev. Microbiol. 49 55–94Google Scholar
  21. Baumann, P., L. Baumann, M. A. Clark, and M. L. Thao. 1998 Buchnera aphidicola: The endosymbiont of aphids ASM News 64 203–209Google Scholar
  22. Beji, A., J. Mergaert, F. Gavini, D. Izard, K. Kersters, H. Leclerc, and J. De Ley. 1988 Subjective synonymy of Erwinina herbicola, Erwinia milletiae, and Enterobacter agglomerans and redefinition of the taxon by genotypic and phenotypic data Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 38 77–88Google Scholar
  23. Berge, O., T. Heulin, W. Achouak, C. Richard, R. Bally, and J. Balandreau. 1991 Rahnella aquatilis, a nitrogen-fixing enteric bacterium associated with the rhizosphere of wheat and maize Can. J. Microbiol. 37 195–203Google Scholar
  24. Blekher, L., Y. Siegman-Igra, D. Schwartz, S. A. Berger, and Y. Carmeli. 2000 Clinical significance and antibiotic resistance patterns of Leminorella spp., an emerging nosocomial pathogen J. Clin. Microbiol. 38 3036–3038PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Boemare, N. E., and R. J. Akhurst. 1988 Biochemical and physiological characterization of colony form variants in Xenorhabdus spp. (Enterobacteriaceae) J. Gen. Microbiol. 134 751–761Google Scholar
  26. Boemare, N. E., R. J. Akhurst, and R. G. Mourant. 1993 DNA relatedness between Xenorhabdus spp. (Enterobacteriaceae), symbiotic bacteria of entomopathogenic nematodes, and a proposal to transfer Xenorhabdus luminescens to a new genus, Photorhabdus gen. nov Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 43 249–255Google Scholar
  27. Böttger, E. C., M. Jürs, T. Barrett, K. Wachsmuth, S. Metzger, and D. Bitter-Suermnn. 1987 Qualitative and quantitative determination of enterobacterial common antigen (ECA) with monoclonal antibodies Expression of ECA by two Actinobacillus species J. Clin. Microbiol. 25 377–382PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Bouvet, O. M. M., P. A. D. Grimont, C. Richard, E. Aldova, O. Hausner, and M. Gabrhelova. 1985 Budvicia aquatica gen. nov.: A hydrogen sulfide-producing member of the Enterobacteriaceae Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 35 60–64Google Scholar
  29. Brenner, D. J. 1974 Deoxyribonucleic acid relatedness among erwiniae and other Enterobacteriaceae: The gall, wilt, and dry-necrosis organisms (genus Erwinia Winslow et al., sensu stricto) Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 24 197–204Google Scholar
  30. Brenner, D. J. 1981 Introduction to the family Enterobacteriaceae In: M. P. Starr, H. Stolp, H. G. Trüper, A. Balows, and H. G. Schlegel (Eds.) The Prokaryotes Springer-Verlag, Berlin 1105–1127Google Scholar
  31. Brenner, D. J., G. R. Fanning, J. K. Leete Knutson, A. G. Steigerwalt, and M. I. Krichevsky. 1984 Attempts to classify herbicola group-Enterobacter agglomerans strains by deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization and phenotypic tests Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 34 45–55Google Scholar
  32. Brenner, D. J. 1991 Additional genera of Enterobacteriaceae In: A. Balows, H. G. Trüper, M. Dworkin, W. Harder, and K.-H. Schleifer (Eds.) The Prokaryotes, 2nd ed Springer-Verlag, Berlin 2922–2937Google Scholar
  33. Brenner, D. J., H. E. Müller, A. G. Steigerwalt, A. M. Whitney, C. M. O’Hara, and P. Kämpfer. 1998 Two new Rahnella genomospecies that cannot be phenotypically differentiated from Rahnella aquatilis Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 48 141–149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Brown, E. W., R. M. Davis, C. Gouk, and T. van der Zwet. 2000 Phylogenetic relationships of necrogenic Erwinia and Brenneria species as revealed by glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene squences Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 50 2057–2068PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Buades, C., J. M. Michelena, A. Latorre, and A. Moya. 1999 Accelerated evolution in bacterial endosymbionts of aphids Int. Microbiol. 2 11–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Caroff, N., C. Chamoux, F. Le Gallou, E. Espaze, F. Gavini, D. Gautreau, H. Richet, and A. Reynaud. 1998 Two epidemiologically related cases of Rahnella aquatilis bacteremia Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 17 349–352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Carter, J. S., S. Hutton, K. S. Sriprakash, D. J. Kemp, G. Lum, J. Savage, and F. J. Bowden. 1997 Culture of the causative organism of donovanosis (Calymmatobacterium granulomatis) in HEp-2 cells J. Clin. Microbiol. 35 2915–2917PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Carter, J. S., F. J. Bowden, I. Bastian, G. M. Myers, K. S. Sriprakash, and D. J. Kemp. 1999a Phylogenetic evidence for reclassification of Calymmatobacterium granulomatis as Klebsiella granulomatis comb. nov Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 49 1695–1700PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Carter, J., F. J. Bowden, K. S. Sriprakash, I. Bastian, and D. J. Kemp. 1999b Diagnostic polymerase chain reaction for donovanosis Clin. Infect. Dis. 28 1168–1169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Carter, J. S., and D. J. Kemp. 2000 A colorimetric detection system for Calymmatobacterium granulomatis Sex. Trans. Infect. 76 134–136Google Scholar
  41. Chagla, A. H., A. A. Borczyk, J. E. Aldom, S. D. Rosa, and D. E. Cole. 1993 Evaluation of the L-pyrrolidonyl-β-naphthylamide hydrolysis test for the differentiation of members of the families Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae J. Clin. Microbiol. 31 1946–1948PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Chang, C. L., J. Jeong, J. H. Shin, E. Y. Lee, and H. C. Son. 1999 Rahnella aquatilis sepsis in an immunocompetent adult J. Clin. Microbiol. 37 4161–4162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Chen, X., S. Li, and S. Aksoy. 1999 Concordant evolution of a symbiont with its host insect species: Molecular phylogeny of genus Glossina and its bacteriome-associated endosymbiont, Wigglesworthia glossinidia J. Molec. Evol. 48 49–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Cheng, Q., and S. Aksoy. 1999 Tissue tropism, transmission and expression of foreign genes in vivo in midgut symbionts of tsetse flies Insect Molec. Biol. 8 125–132Google Scholar
  45. Coudron, P. E., and S. M. Markowitz. 1987 Cedecea lapagei isolated from lung tissue Clin. Microbiol. Newslett. 9 171–172Google Scholar
  46. Da Costa, P. S. G., M. M. M. A. Tostes, and M. M. de Carvalho Valle. 2000 A case of keratoconjunctivitis due to ewingella americana and a review of unusual organisms causing external eye infections Braz. J. Infect. Dis. 4 262–267PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Dale, C., and I. Maudlin. 1999 Sodalis gen. nov. and Sodalis glossinidius sp. nov., a microaerophilic secondary endosymbiont of the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans morsitans Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 49 267–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Dale, C., and S. C. Welburn. 2001a The endosymbionts of tsetse flies: Manipulating host-parasite interactions Int. J. Parasitol. 31 628–631PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Dale, C., S. A. Young, D. T. Haydon, and S. C. Welburn. 2001b The insect endosymbiont Sodalis glossinidius utilizes a type III secretion system for cell invasion Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 98 1883–1888PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. De Baere, T., G. Wauters, A. Huylenbroeck, G. Claeys, R. Peleman, G. Verschraegen, D. Allemeersch, and M. Veneechoutte. 2001 Isolations of Leclercia adecarboxylata from a patient with a chronically inflamed gallbladder and from a patient with sepsis without focus J. Clin. Microbiol. 39 1674–1675PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. De Champs, C., S. Le Seaux, J. J. Dubost, S. Biosgard, B. Sauvezie, and J. Sirot. 2000 Isolation of Pantoea agglomerans in two cases of septic monoarthritis after plant thorn and wood sliver injuries J. Clin. Microbiol. 38 460–461PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. de la Obra, P., D. Domingo, R. Casaseca, M. del Carmen del Rey, and M. Löpez-Brea. 1999 Bacteremia due to Leclercia adecarboxylata in a patient with multiple myeloma Clin. Microbiol. Newslett. 21 142–143Google Scholar
  53. Devreese, K., G. Claeys, and G. Verschraegen. 1992 Septicemia with Ewingella americana J. Clin. Microbiol. 30 2746–2747PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Dienst, R. B., and G. H. Brownell. 1984 Genus Calymmatobacterium In: N. R. Krieg and J. G. Holt (Eds.) Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, MD 1 585–587Google Scholar
  55. Dollberg, S., A. Gandacu, and A. Klar. 1990 Acute pyelonephritis due to Kluyvera species in a child Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 9 281–283PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Drancourt, M., C. Bollet, A. Carta, and P. Rousselier. 2001 Phylogenetic analyses of Klebsiella species delineate Klebsiella and Raoultella gen. nov., with desription of Raoultella ornithinolytica comb. nov., Raoultella terrigena comb. nov. and Raoultella planticola comb. nov Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 51 925–932PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Ehlers, R.-U., U. Wyss, and E. Stackebrandt. 1988 16S rRNA cataloguing and the phylogenetic position of the genus Xenorhabdus Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 10 121–125Google Scholar
  58. Fainstein, V., R. L. Hopfer, K. Mills, and G. P. Bodey. 1981 Colonization by or diarrhea due to Kluyvera species J. Infect. Dis. 145 127Google Scholar
  59. Farmer 3rd, J. J., G. R. Fanning, G. P. Huntley-Carter, B. Holmes, F. W. Hickman, C. Richard, and D. J. Brenner. 1981 Kluyvera, a new (redefined) genus in the family Enterobacteriaceae: Identification of Kluyvera ascorbata sp. nov. and Kluyvera cryocrescens sp. nov. in clinical specimens J. Clin. Microbiol. 13 919–933PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Farmer 3rd, J. J., N. K. Sheth, J. A. Hudzinski, H. D. Rose, and M. F. Asbury. 1982 Bacteremia due to Cedecea neteri sp. nov J. Clin. Microbiol. 16 775–778PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Farmer 3rd, J. J. 1984 Other genera of the family Enterobacteriaceae In: N. R. Krieg and J. G. Holt (Eds.) Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, MD 1 506–516Google Scholar
  62. Farmer 3rd, J. J., B. R. Davis, F. W. Hickman-Brenner, A. McWhorter, G. P. Huntley-Carter, M. A. Asbury, C. Riddle, H. G. Wathen-Grady, C. Elias, G. R. Fanning, A. G. Steigerwalt, C. M. O’Hara, G. K. Morris, P. B. Smith, and D. J. Brenner. 1985 Biochemical identification of new species and biogroups of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from clinical species J. Clin. Microbiol. 21 46–76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Farmer 3rd, J. J., J. H. Jorgensen, P. A. D. Grimont, R. J. Akhurst, G. O. Poinar Jr., E. Ageron, G. V. Pierce, J. A. Smith, G. P. Carter, K. L. Wilson, and F. W. Hickman-Brenner. 1989 Xenorhabdus luminescens (DNA hybridization group 5) from human clinical specimens J. Clin. Microbiol. 27 1594–1600PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Farmer 3rd, J. J. 1999 Enterobacteriaceae: Introduction and Identification In: P. R. Murray, E. J. Baron, M. A. Pfaller, F. C. Tenover, and R. H. Yolken (Eds.) Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 7th ed ASM Press, Washington DC 442–458Google Scholar
  65. Fattal, O., and J. G. Deville. 2000 Leclercia adecarboxylata peritonitis in a child receiving chronic peritoneal dialysis Pediatr. Nephrol. 15 186–187PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Ferguson, R., C. Feeney, and V. A. Chirurgi. 1993 Enterobacter agglomerans-associated cotton fever Arch. Int. Med. 153 2381–2382Google Scholar
  67. Ferragut, C., D. Izard, F. Gavini, B. Lefebvre, and H. Leclerc. 1981 Buttiauxella, a new genus of the family Enterobacteriaceae Zentralbl. Bakteriol. Parasitenkd. Infekt. Hyg. C2 33–44Google Scholar
  68. Ffrench-Constant, R., and D. Bowen. 1999 Photorhabdus toxins: Novel biological insecticides Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 2 284–288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Fischer-Le Saux, M., H. Mauléon, P. Constant, B. Brunel, and N. Boemare. 1998 PCR-ribotyping of Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus isolates from the caribbean region in relation to the taxonomy and geographic distribution of their nematode hosts Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64 4246–4254Google Scholar
  70. Fischer-Le Saux, M., V. Viallard, B. Brunel, P. Normand, and N. Boemare. 1999 Polyphasic classification of the genus Photorhabdus and proposal of new taxa: P. luminescens subsp. luminescens subsp. nov., P. luminescens subsp. akhurstii subsp. nov., P. luminescens subsp. laumondii subsp. nov., P. temperata sp. nov., and P. asymbiotica sp. nov Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 49 1645–1656Google Scholar
  71. Forst, S., and K. Nealson. 1996 Molecular biology of the symbiotic-pathogenic bacteria Xenorhabdus spp. and Photorhabdus spp Microbiol. Rev. 60 21–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Forst, S., B. Dowds, N. Boemare, and E. Stackebrandt. 1997 Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus spp.: Bugs that kill bugs Ann. Rev. Microbiol. 51 47–72Google Scholar
  73. Frackman, S., M. Anhalt, and K. H. Nealson. 1990 Cloning, organization, and expression of the bioluminescence genes of Xenorhabdus luminescens J. Bacteriol. 172 5767–5773PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Freney, J., M. O. Husson, F. Gavini, S. Madier, A. Marta, D. Izard, H. Leclerc, and J. Fleurette. 1988 Susceptibilities to antibiotics and antiseptics of new species of the family Enterobacteriaceae Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 32 873–876PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Fukatsu, T. 1999 Acetone preservation: A practical technique for molecular analysis Molec. Ecol. 8 1935–1945Google Scholar
  76. Funke, G., and H. Rosner. 1995 Rahnella aquatilis bacteremia in an HIV-infected intravenous drug abuser Diag. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 22 293–296Google Scholar
  77. Gavini, F., C. Ferragut, B. Lefebvre, and H. Leclerc. 1976 Etude taxonomique d’entérobactéries appartenant ou apparentées au genre Enterobacter Ann. Microbiol. (Inst. Pasteur) 127B 317–335Google Scholar
  78. Gavini, F., D. Izard, C. Ferragut, J. J. Farmer 3rd, and H. Leclerc. 1983a Separation of Kluyvera and Buttiauxella by biochemical and nucleic acid methods Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 33 880–882Google Scholar
  79. Gavini, F., B. Lefebvre, and H. Leclerc. 1983b Taxonomic study of strains belonging to the genus Erwinia herbicola group and to species Enterobacter agglomerans Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 4 218–235Google Scholar
  80. Gavini, F., J. Mergaert, A. Beji, C. Mielcarek, D. Izard, K. Kersters, and J. De Ley. 1989 Transfer of Enterobacter agglomerans (Beijerinck 1888) Ewing and Fife 1972 to Pantoea gen. nov. as Pantoea agglomerans comb. nov. and description of Pantoea dispersa sp. nov Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 39 337–345Google Scholar
  81. Gherna, R. L., J. H. Werren, W. Weisburg, R. Cote, C. R. Woese, L. Mandelco, and D. J. Brenner. 1991 Arsenophonus nasoniae gen. nov., sp. nov., the causative agent of the son-killer trait in the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 41 563–565Google Scholar
  82. Grimont, P. A. D., F. Grimont, J. J. Farmer 3rd, and M. A. Asbury. 1981 Cedecea davisae gen. nov. and Cedecea lapagei sp. nov., new Enterobacteriaceae from clinical speciemens Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 31 317–326Google Scholar
  83. Grimont, P. A. D., J. J. Farmer 3rd, F. Grimont, M. A. Asbury, D. J. Brenner, and C. Deval. 1983 Ewingella americana gen. nov., sp. nov., a new Enterobacteriaceae isolated from clinical specimens Ann. Microbiol. (Inst. Pasteur) 134A 39–52Google Scholar
  84. Grimont, P. A., A. G. Steigerwalt, N. E. Boemare, F. W. Hickman-Brenner, C. Deval, F. Grimont, and D. Brenner. 1984 Deoxyribonucleic acid relatedness and phenotypic study of the genus Xenorhabdus Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 34 378–388Google Scholar
  85. Guinée, P. A. M., and J. J. Valkenburg. 1968 Diagnostic value of a Hafnia-specific bacteriophage J. Bacteriol. 96 564PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Hamana, K. 1996 Distribution of diaminopropane and acetylspermidine in Enterobacteriaceae Can. J. Microbiol. 42 107–114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Hamze, M., J. Mergaert, H. J. van Vuuren, F. Gavini, A. Beji, D. Izard, and K. Kersters. 1991 Rahnella aquatilis, a potential contaminant in lager beer breweries Int. J. Food Microbiol. 13 63–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Hansen, M. W., and G. Y. Glupczynski. 1984 Isolation of an unusual Cedecea species from a cutaneous ulcer Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. 3 152–153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Hart, C. A., and S. K. Rao. 1999 Donovanosis J. Med. Microbiol. 48 707–709PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Hauben, L., E. R. B. Moore, L. Vauterin, M. Steenackers, J. Mergaert, L. Verdonck, and J. Swings. 1998a Phylogenetic position of phytopathogens within the Enterobacteriaceae Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 21 384–397PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Hauben, L., M. Steenackers, and J. Swings. 1998b PCR-based detection of the causal agent of watermark disease in willows (Salix spp.) Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64 3966–3971PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Heizmann, W. R., and R. Michel. 1991 Isolation of Ewingella americana from a patient with conjunctivitis Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 10 957–959PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Heron, S. J. E., J. F. Wilkinson, and C. M. Duffus. 1993 Enterobacteria associated with grass and silages J. Appl. Microbiol. 75 13–17Google Scholar
  94. Hickman-Brenner, F. W., G. P. Huntley-Carter, Y. Saitoh, A. G. Steigerwalt, J. J. Farmer 3rd, and D. J. Brenner. 1984 Moellerella wisconsensis, a new genus and species of Enterobacteriaceae found in human stool specimens J. Clin. Microbiol. 19 460–463PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Hickman-Brenner, F. W., G. P. Huntley-Carter, G. R. Fanning, D. J. Brenner, and J. J. Farmer 3rd. 1985a Koserella trabulsii, a new genus and species of Enterobacteriaceae formerly known as enteric group 45 J. Clin. Microbiol. 21 39–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Hickman-Brenner, F. W., M. P. Vohra, G. P. Huntley-Carter, G. R. Fanning, V. A. Lowery 3rd, D. J. Brenner, and J. J. Farmer 3rd. 1985b Leminorella, a new genus of Enterobacteriaceae: Identification of Leminorella grimontii sp. nov. and Leminorella richardii sp. nov. found in clinical specimens J. Clin. Microbiol. 21 234–239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Hollis, D. G., F. W. Hickman, G. R. Fanning, J. J. Farmer 3rd, R. E. Weaver, and D. J. Brenner. 1981 Tatumella ptyseos gen. nov., a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae found in clinical specimens J. Clin. Microbiol. 14 79–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Hypa, V., and C. Dale. 1997 In vitro culture and phylogenetic analysis of “Candidatus Arsenophonus triatominarum,” an intracellular bacterium from the triatomine bug, Triatoma infestans Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 47 1140–1144Google Scholar
  99. Iimura, K., and A. Hosono. 1996 Biochemical characteristics of Enterobacter agglomerans and related strains found in buckwheat seeds Int. J. Food Microbiol. 30 243–253PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Inglis, P. W., and J. F. Peberdy. 1996 Isolation of Ewingella americana from the cultivated mushroom, Agaricus bisporus Curr. Microbiol. 33 334–337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Izard, D., F. Gavini, P. A. Trinel, and H. Leclerc. 1979 Rahnella aquatilis nouveau membre de la family des Enterobacteriaceae Ann. Microbiol. (Inst. Pasteur) 130A 163–177Google Scholar
  102. Izard, D., J. Mergaert, F. Gavini, A. Beij, K. Kersters, J. De Ley, and H. Leclerc. 1985 Separation of Escherichia adecarboxylata from the “Erwinia herbicola-Enterobacter agglomerans” complex and from other Enterobacteriaceae by nucleic acid and protein electrophoretic techniques Ann. Inst. Pasteur (Microbiol.) 136B 151–168Google Scholar
  103. Janda, J. M., and S. L. Abbott. 1998 The Enterobacteria Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, PAGoogle Scholar
  104. Jang, E. B., and K. A. Nishijima. 1990 Identification and attractancy of bacteria associated with Dacus dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) Environ. Entomol. 19 1726–1731Google Scholar
  105. Janse, J. D., and P. H. Smits. 1990 Whole cell fatty acid patterns of Xenorhabdus species J. Appl. Microbiol. 10 131–135Google Scholar
  106. Kageyama, B., M. Nakae, S. Yagi, and T. Sonoyama. 1992 Pantoea punctata sp. nov., Pantoea citrea sp. nov., and Pantoea terrea sp. nov. isolated from fruit and soil samples Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 42 203–210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Kämpfer, P., S. Meyer, and H. E. Müller. 1997 Characterization of Buttiauxella and Kluyvera species by analysis of whole cell fatty acid patterns Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 20 566–571Google Scholar
  108. Kati, C., E. Bibashi, E. Kokolina, and D. Sofianou. 1999 Case of peritonitis caused by Ewingella americana in a patient undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis J. Clin. Microbiol. 37 3733–3734PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Kharsany, A. B. M., A. A. Hoosen, P. Kiepiela, T. Naicker, and A. W. Sturm. 1996 Culture of Calymmatobacterium granulomatis Clin. Infect. Dis. 22 391PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Kharsany, A. B. M., A. A. Hoosen, P. Kiepiela, T. Naicker, and A. W. Sturm. 1997 Growth and cultural characteristics of Calymmatobacterium granulomatis—the aetiological agent of granuloma inguinale (Donovanosis) J. Med. Microbiol. 46 579–585PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Kharsany, A. B. M., A. A. Hoosen, P. Kiepiela, P. Kirby, and A. W. Sturm. 1999 Phylogenetic analysis of Calymmatobacterium granulomatis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences J. Med. Microbiol. 48 841–847PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Khetmalas, M. B., A. K. Bal, L. D. Noble, and J. A. Gow. 1996 Pantoea agglomerans is the etiological agent for black spot necrosis on beach peas Can. J. Microbiol. 42 1252–1257Google Scholar
  113. Komaki, K., and H. Ishikawa. 1999 Intracellular bacterial symbionts of aphids possess many genomic copies J. Molec. Evol. 48 717–722PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Komaki, K., and H. Ishikawa. 2000 Genomic copy number of intracellular bacterial symbionts of aphids varies in response to developmental stage and morph of their host Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 30 253–258Google Scholar
  115. Kosako, Y., R. Sakazaki, and E. Yoshizaki. 1984 Yokenella regensburgei gen. nov., sp. nov.: A new genus and species in the family Enterobacteriaceae Japan. J. Med. Sci. Biol. 37 117–124Google Scholar
  116. Kosako, Y., R. Sakazaki, GP Huntley-Carter, and JJ Farmer III. 1987 Yokenella regensburgei and Koserella trabulsii are subjective synonyms J. Clin. Microbiol. 37 127–129Google Scholar
  117. Kosako, Y., and R. Sakazaki. 1991 Priority of Yokenella regensburgei Kosako, Sakazaki, and Yoshizaki 1985 over Koserella trabulsii Hickman-Brenner, Huntley-Carter, Brenner, and Farmer 1985 Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 41 171Google Scholar
  118. Kwon, S.-W., S.-J. Go, H.-W. Kang, J.-C. Ryu, and J.-K. Jo. 1997 Phylogenetic analysis of Erwinia species based on 16S rRNA gene sequences Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 47 1061–1067PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Lelliott, R. A., and R. S. Dickey. 1984 Genus VII: Erwinia In: N. R. Krieg and J. G. Holt (Eds.) Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD 1 469–476Google Scholar
  120. Lindberg, A.-M., Å. Ljungh, S. Ahrné, S. Löfdahl, and G. Molin. 1998 Enterobacteriaceae found in high numbers in fish, minced meat and pasteurised milk or cream and the presence of toxin encoding genes Int. J. Food Microbiol. 39 11–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Liu, J., R. Berry, G. Poinar, and A. Moldenke. 1997 Phylogeny of Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus species and strains as determined by comparison of partial 16S rRNA gene sequences Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 47 948–951PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Longhurst, C. A., and D. C. West. 2001 Isolation of Leclercia adecarboxylata from an infant with acute lymphoblastic leukemia Clin. Infect. Dis. 32 1659PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Luttrell, R. E., G. A. Rannick, J. L. Soto-Hernandez, and A. Verghese. 1988 Kluyvera species soft tissue infection: Case report and review J. Clin. Microbiol. 26 2650–2651PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Mangum, M. E., and D. Radisch. 1982 Cedecea species: Unusual clinical isolate Clin. Microbiol. Newslett. 4 117–119Google Scholar
  125. Maraki, S., G. Samonis, E. Marnelakis, and Y. Tselentis. 1994 Surgical wound infection caused by Rahnella aquatilis J. Clin. Microbiol. 32 2706–2708PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Marshall, A. R., I. J. Al-Jumaili, and A. J. Blint. 1986 The isolation of Moellerella wisconsensis from stool samples in the U.K J. Infect. 12 31–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Matsukura, H., K. Katayama, N. Kitano, K. Kobayashi, C. Kanegane, A. Higuchi, and S. Kyotani. 1996 Infective endocarditis caused by an unusual Gram-negative rod, Rahnella aquatilis Pediatr. Cardiol. 17 108–111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. McNeil, M. M., B. J. Davis, R. L. Anderson, N. Clark, R. C. Cooksey, C. M. O’Hara, C. F. Riddle, S. T. Shulman, W. J. Martone, and S. L. Solomon. 1987a Plasmids of Ewingella americana: Supplementary epidemiologic markers in an outbreak of pseudobacteremia J. Clin. Microbiol. 25 501–503PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. McNeil, M. M., B. J. Davis, S. L. Solomon, R. L. Anderson, S. T. Shulman, S. Gardner, K. Kabat, and W. J. Martone. 1987b Ewingella americana: Recurrent pseudobacteremia from a persistent environmental reservoir J. Clin. Microbiol. 25 498–500PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. McWhorter, A. C., R. L. Haddock, F. A. Nocon, A. G. Steigerwalt, D. J. Brenner, S. Aleksi, J. Bockemühl, and J. J. Farmer 3rd. 1991 Trabulsiella guamensis, a new genus and species of the family Enterobacteriaceae that resembles Salmonella subgroups 4 and 5 J. Clin. Microbiol. 29 1480–1485PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Mergaert, J., L. Verdonck, and K. Kersters. 1993 Transfer of Erwinia ananas (synonym, Erwinia uredovora) and Erwinia stewartii to the genus Pantoea emend. as Pantoea ananas (Serrano 1928) comb. nov. and Pantoea stewartii (Smith 1898) comb. nov., respectively, and description of Pantoea stewartii subsp. indologenes subsp. nov Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 43 162–173Google Scholar
  132. Moran, N. A., and P. Baumann. 2000 Bacterial endosymbionts in animals Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 3 270–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Morgan, J. A. W., V. Kuntzelmann, S. Tavernor, M. A. Ousley, and C. Winstanley. 1997 Survival of Xenorhabdus nematophilus and Photorhabdus luminescens in water and soil J. Appl. Microbiol. 83 665–670Google Scholar
  134. Müller, H. E., G. R. Fanning, and D. J. Brenner. 1995 Isolation of Ewingella americana from mollusks Curr. Microbiol. 31 287–290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Müller, H. E., D. J. Brenner, G. R. Fanning, P. A. D. Grimont, and P. Kämpfer. 1996 Emended description of Buttiauxella agrestis with recognition of six new species of Buttiauxella and two new species of Kluyvera: Buttiauxella ferragutiae sp. nov., Buttiauxella gaviniae sp. nov., Buttiauxella brennerae sp. nov., Buttiauxella izarddii sp. nov., Buttiauxella noackiae sp. nov., Buttiauxella warmboldiae sp. nov., Kluyvera cochleae sp. nov., and Kluyvera georgiana sp. nov Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 46 50–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Munson, M. A., P. Baumann, and M. G. Kinsey. 1991 Buchnera gen. nov. and Buchnera aphidicola sp. nov., a taxon consisting of the mycetocyte-associated, primary endosymbionts of aphids Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 41 566–568Google Scholar
  137. Murray, R. G. E., and K. H. Schleifer. 1994 Taxonomic notes: A proposal for recording the properties of putative taxa of procaryotes Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 44 174–176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Nakabachi, A., and H. Ishikawa. 2000 Polyamine composition and expression of genes related to polyamine biosynthesis in an aphid endosymbiont, Buchnera Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66 3305–3309PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Nishimura, Y., A. Hagiwara, T. Suzuki, and S. Yamanaka. 1994 Xenorhabdus japonicus sp. nov. associated with the nematode Steinerema kushidai World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 10 207–210Google Scholar
  140. Oh, H. M. L., and L. Tay. 1995 Bacteraemia caused by Rahnella aquatilis: Report of two cases and review Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 27 79–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Österblad, M., O. Pensala, M. Peterzéns, H. Heleniusc, and P. Huovinen. 1999 Antimicrobial susceptibility of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from vegetables J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 43 503–509PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Peel, M. M., D. A. Alfredson, J. G. Gerrard, J. M. Davis, J. M. Robson, R. J. McDougall, B. L. Scullie, and R. J. Akhurst. 1999 Isolation, identification, and molecular characterization of strains of Photorhabdus luminescens from infected humans in Australia J. Clin. Microbiol. 37 3647–3653PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Perkins, S. R., T. A. Beckett, and C. M. Bump. 1986 Cedecea davisae bacteremia J. Clin. Microbiol. 24 675–676PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Pien, F. D., J. J. Farmer 3rd, and R. E. Weaver. 1983 Polymicrobic bacteremia caused by Ewingella americana (Family Enterobacteriaceae) and an unusual Pseudomonas species J. Clin. Microbiol. 18 727–729PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Pien, F. D., and A. E. Bruce. 1986 Nosocomial Ewingella americana bacteremia in an intensive care unit Arch Intern. Med. 146 111–112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Poinar Jr., G. O., and G. M. Thomas. 1967 The nature of Achromobacter nematophilus as an insect pathogen J. Invertebr. Pathol. 9 510–514Google Scholar
  147. Priest, F. G., H. J. Somerville, J. A. Cole, and J. S. Hough. 1973 The taxonomic position of Obesumbacterium proteus, a common brewery contaminant J. Gen. Microbiol. 75 295–307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Pujol, C. J., C. I. Kado. 2000 Genetic and biochemical characterization of the pathway in Pantoea citrea leading to pink disease of pineapple J. Bacteriol. 182 2230–2237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Pumpuni, C. B., M. S. Beier, J. P. Nataro, L. D. Guers, and J. R. Davis. 1993 Plasmodium falciparum: Inhibition of sporogenic development in Anopheles stephansi by Gram-negative bacteria Exp. Parasitol. 77 195–199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Rainey, F. A., R.-U. Ehlers, and E. Stackebrandt. 1995 Inability of the polyphasic approach to systematics to determine the relatedness of the genera Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 45 379–381PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Ramia, S., E. Neter, and D. J. Brenner. 1982 Production of enterobacterial common antigen as an aid to classification of newly identified species of the families Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 32 395–398Google Scholar
  152. Reina, J., and A. Lopez. 1996 Clinical and microbiological characteristics of Rahnella aquatilis strains isolated from children J. Infect. 33 135–137PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Rhodes, A. N., J. W. Urbance, H. Youga, H. Corlew-Newman, C. A. Reddy, M. J. Klug, J. M. Tiedje, and D. C. Fisher. 1998 Identification of bacterial isolates obtained from intestinal contents associated with 12,000-year-old mastodon remains Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64 651–658PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Richens, J. 1991 The diagnosis and treatment of donovanosis (granuloma inguinale) Genitourin. Med. 67 441–452PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Schindler, J., B., B. Potuníková, and E. Aldová. 1992 Classification of strains of Pragia fontium, Budvicia aquatica, and Leminorella by whole-cell protein pattern J. Hyg. Epidemiol. Microbiol. Immunol. 36 207–216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Schubert, R. H., and S. Groeger-Sohn. 1998 Detection of Budvicia aquatica and Pragia fontium and occurrence in surface waters Zentralbl. Hyg. Umweltmed. 201 371–376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Shieh, W. Y., and W. D. Jean. 1998 Alterococcus agarolyticus, gen. nov., sp. nov., a halophilic thermophilic bacterium capable of agar degradation Can. J. Microbiol. 44 637–645PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Shigenobu, S., H. Watanabe, M. Hattori, Y. Sakaki, and H. Ishikawa. 2000 Genome sequence of the endocellular bacterial symbiont of aphids Buchnera sp. APS Nature 407 81–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Shimwell, J. L. 1964 Obesumbacterium, a new genus for the inclusion of “Flavobacterium proteus” J. Inst. Brew. 70 759–760Google Scholar
  160. Sierra-Madero, J., K. Pratt, G. S. Hall, R. W. Stewart, J. J. Scerbo, and D. L. Longworth. 1990 Kluyvera mediastinitis following open-heart surgery: A case report J. Clin. Microbiol. 28 2848–2849PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Sinha, S. K., and M. Prasad. 1977 Bacterial stalk rot of maize, its symptoms and host-range Zentralbl. Bakteriol. Parasitenkd. Infektionskr. Hyg. 132 81–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Skerman, V. B. D., V. McGowan, and P. H. A. Sneath. 1980 Approved lists of bacterial names Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 30 225–420Google Scholar
  163. Sneath, P. H. A. (Ed.). 1992 International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria, 1992 Revision American Society for Microbiology, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  164. Spröer, C., U. Mendrock, J. Swiderski, E. Lang, and E. Stackebrandt. 1999 The phylogenetic position of Serratia, Buttiauxella and some other genera of the family Enterobacteriaceae Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 49 1433–1438PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Stackebrandt, E., R. G. E. Murray, and H. G. Trüper. 1988 Proteobacteria classis nov., a name for the phylogenetic taxon that includes the “purple bacteria and their relatives” Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 38 321–325Google Scholar
  166. Stock, I., T. Gruger, and B. Wiedemann. 2000 Natural antibiotic susceptibility of Rahnella aquatilis and R. aquatilis-related strains J. Chemother. 12 30–39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Surico, G., L. Mugnai, R. Pastorelli, L. Giovannetti, and D. E. Stead. 1996 Erwinia alni, a new species causing bark cankers of alder (Alnus Miller) species Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 46 720–726Google Scholar
  168. Suzuki, T., S. Yamanaka, and Y. Nishimura. 1990 Chemotaxonomic study of Xenorhabdus species—cellular fatty acids, ubiquinone and DNA-DNA hybridization J. Gen. Microbiol. 36 393–401Google Scholar
  169. Suzuki, T., H. Yabusaki, and Y. Nishimura. 1996 Phylogenetic relationships of entomopathogenic nematophilic bacteria: Xenorhabdus spp. and Photorhabdus sp J. Basic Microbiol. 36 351–354PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Szállás, E., C. Koch, A. Fodor, J. Burghardt, O. Buss, A. Szentirmai, K. H. Nealson, and E. Stackebrandt. 1997 Phylogenetic evidence for the taxonomic heterogeneity of Photorhabdus luminescens Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 47 402–407PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Tamura, K., R. Sakazaki, Y. Kosako, and E. Yoshizaki. 1986 Leclercia adecarboxylata gen. nov., comb. nov., formerly known as Escherichia adecarboxylata Curr. Microbiol. 13 179–184Google Scholar
  172. Tan, S. C., Y. H. Wong, M. Jegathesan, and S. M. Chang. 1989 The first isolate of Tatumella ptyseos in Malaysia. Malays J. Pathol. 11 25–27Google Scholar
  173. Temesgen, Z., D. R. Toal, and F. R. Cockerill 3rd. 1997 Leclercia adecarboxylata infections: Case report and review Clin. Infect. Dis. 25 79–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Thomas, G. M., and G. O. Poinar Jr. 1979 Xenorhabdus gen. nov., a genus of entomopathogenic nematophilic bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 29 352–360Google Scholar
  175. Tristram, D. A., and B. A. Forbes. 1988 Kluyvera: A case report of urinary tract infection and sepsis Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 7 297–298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Van Ham, R. C. H. J., F. González-Candelas, F. J. Silva, B. Sabater, A. Moya, and A. Latorre. 2000 Postsymbiotic plasmid acquisition and evolution of the repA1-replicon in Buchnera aphidicola Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 97 10855–10860PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Verdonck, L., J. Mergaert, C. Rijckaert, J. Swings, K. Kersters, and J. De Ley. 1987 The genus Erwinia: A numerical analysis of phenotypic features Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 37 4–18Google Scholar
  178. Waldee, E. L. 1945 Comparative studies of some peritrichous phytopathogenic bacteria Iowa State Coll. J. Sci. 19 435–484Google Scholar
  179. Wallet, F., A. Fruchart, P. J. M. Bouvet, and R. J. Courcol. 1994 Isolation of Moellerella wisconsensis from a bronchial aspirate Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 13 182–183PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Waterfield, N. R., D. J. Bowen, J. D. Fetherston, R. D. Perry, and R. H. Ffrench-Constant. 2001 The tc genes of Photorhabdus: A growing family Trends Microbiol. 9 185–191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Wernegreen, J. J., H. Ochman, I. B. Jones, and N. A. Morgan. 2000 Decoupling the genome size and sequence divergence in a symbiotic bacterium J. Bacteriol. 182 3867–3869PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Werren, J. H., S. W. Skinner, and A. M. Huger. 1986 Male-killing bacteria in a parasitic wasp Science 231 990–992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. West, B. C., H. Vijayan, and R. Shekar. 1998 Kluyvera cryocrescens finger infection: Case report and review of eighteen Kluyvera infections in human beings Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 32 237–241PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Wittke, J.-W., S. Aleksi, and H.-H. Wuthe. 1985 Isolation of Moellerella wisconsensis from an infected gallbladder Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. 4 351–352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Xi, L., K.-W. Cho, and S.-C. Tu. 1991 Cloning and nulcleotide sequences of the lux genes and characterization of luciferase of Xenorhabdus lumiescens from a human wound J. Bacteriol. 173 1399–1405PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Yaping, J., L. Xiaoyang, and Y. Jiaqi. 1990 Saccharobacter fermentatus gen. nov., sp. nov., a new ethanol-producing bacterium Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 40 412–414Google Scholar
  187. Yogev, R., and S. Kozlowski. 1990 Peritonitis due to Kluyvera ascorbata: Case report and review Rev. Infect. Dis. 12 399–402PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Michael Janda

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations