Encyclopedia of Sex and Gender

2004 Edition
| Editors: Carol R. Ember, Melvin Ember

Rape and Other Sexual Aggression

  • Laura Zimmer-Tamakoshi
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/0-387-29907-6_23

Rape and Other Sexual Aggression

Sexual aggression occurs the world over. I begin with a review of sexual aggression, primarily in the United States where it is more thoroughly researched. I then discuss perpetrators and victims, setting the stage for cross-cultural analyses of causes, questions of definition and methodology, and the relationship of sexual aggression to other violence.

Their Nature and Extent

Acts of sexual aggression have been documented for centuries. The statistics used here are recent and considered among the more valid by top researchers in this field of study.

Rape and Child Sexual Abuse. In 1997, the U.S. Bureau of Justice’s Uniform Crime Reports estimated the annual rate of reported rapes to be 70 per 100,000 women (Russell & Bolen, 2000, p. 51). Federal crime victimization surveys found the annual prevalence of completed or attempted rapes to be three to four times higher. Russell’s 1978 lifetime prevalencesurvey of 930 San Francisco women suggests a greater...

Keywords

Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Sexual Harassment Child Sexual Abuse Sexual Violence 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. 1.
    Beasley, M. (1994). Maltreatment of maids in Kuwait. In M. Davies (Ed.), Women and violence: Realities and responses worldwide (pp. 53–59). London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Beneke, T. (1982). Men on rape. New York: St Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Boswell, A. A., & Spade, J. Z. (1996). Fraternities and collegiate rape culture: Why are some fraternities more dangerous places for women? Gender and Society, 10(2), 133–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bourgois, P. (2001). In search of masculinity: Violence, respect, and sexuality among Puerto Rican crack dealers in East Harlem. In M. S. Kimmel & M. A. Messner (Eds.), Men’s lives (5th ed., pp. 42–55). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. (Reprinted from The British Journal of Criminology, 36, 412–427.)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bradley, C. (1985). Attitudes and practices relating to marital violence among the Tolai of East New Britain. In S. Toft (Ed.), Domestic violence in Papua New Guinea (Monograph No. 3, pp. 32–71). Port Moresby: Papua New Guinea Law Reform Commission.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bradley, C. (1994). Why male violence against women is a development issue: Reflections from Papua New Guinea. In M. Davies (Ed.), Women and violence: Realities and responses worldwide (pp. 10–26). London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Brownmiller, S. (1975). Against our will: Men, women and rape. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cameron, D. (1992). That’s entertainment?: Jack the Ripper and the selling of sexual violence. In J. Radford & D. E. H. Russell (Eds.), Femicide: The politics of woman killing (pp. 17–19). New York: Twayne. (Reprinted from Trouble and Strife, Spring 1988, 17–19.)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Campaign Free Tibet. (1994). We have no rights, not even our bodies. In M. Davies (Ed.), Women and violence: Realities and responses worldwide (pp. 133–136). London: Zed Books. (Adapted and reprinted from a report compiled for Campaign Free Tibet.)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chagnon, N. A. (1997). Yanomamo (5th ed.). Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace College.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cox, E. S. (1994). Gender violence and women’s health in Central America. In M. Davies (Ed.), Women and violence: Realities and responses worldwide (pp. 118–132). London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Davies, M. (1994). Child sexual abuse: Why the silence must be broken—Notes from the Pacific region. In M. Davies (Ed.), Women and violence: Realities and responses worldwide (pp. 97–110). London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dinnen, S. (1993). Big men, small men and invisible women. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 26, 19–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dinnen, S. (1996). Law, order, and state. In L. Zimmer-Tamakoshi (Ed.), Modern Papua New Guinea (pp. 333–350). Kirksville, MO: Thomas Jefferson University Press.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Drakulic, S. (1994). The rape of women in Bosnia. In M. Davies (Ed.), Women and violence: Realities and responses worldwide (pp. 176–181). London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dworkin, A. (1981). Pornography: Men possessing women. New York: Perigee.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ellis, L. (1989). Theories of rape: Inquiries into the causes of sexual aggression. New York: Hemisphere.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Federal Bureau of Investigation. (1998). Implementing the national incident-based reporting system. Website: http://www.nibrs. search.org/frmain.htmGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ferguson, R. B., & Whitehead, N. L. (1992). The violent edge of empire. In R. B. Ferguson & N. L. Whitehead (Eds.), War in the tribal zone: Expanding states and indigenous warfare (pp. 1–30). Santa Fe, NM: School of American Research Press.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Finkelhor, D. (1994). Current information on the scope and nature of child sexual abuse. Future of Children, 4(2), 31–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Finkelhor, D., & Yllo, K. (1985). License to rape: Sexual abuse of wives. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fontes, L.A. (1995). Sexual abuse in nine North American cultures: Treatment and prevention. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Freud, S. (1961). The aetiology of hysteria. In J. Strachey (Ed. & Trans.), The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 3, pp. 189–221). London: Hogarth Press. (Original work published 1896.)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gilmore, D. D. (1990). Manhood in the making. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Giuffre, P. A., & Williams, C. L. (1994). Boundary lines: Labeling sexual harassment in restaurants. Gender and Society, 8, 378–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Goodale, J. C. (1971). Tiwi wives: A study of the women of Melville Island, North Australia. Seattle: University of Washington Press.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Goodale, J. C. (1980). Gender, sexuality and marriage: A Kaulong model of nature and culture. In C. MacCormack & M. Strathern (Eds.), Nature, culture and gender (pp. 119–142). Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gutek, B. A. (1985). Sex and the workplace. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hatty, S. E. (2000). Masculinities, violence, and culture (Sage Series on Violence Against Women). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Herdt, G. H. (1982). Rituals of manhood: Male initiation in Papua New Guinea. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Herman, D. (1984). The rape culture. In J. Freeman (Ed.), Women: A feminist perspective (3rd ed., pp. 20–38). Mountain View, CA: Mayfield.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Jasinski, J. L., & Williams, L. M. (Eds.), (1998). Partner violence: A comprehensive review of 20 years of research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Jayawardena, K. (1986). Feminism and nationalism in the Third World. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kantor, G. K., & Jasinski, J. L. (1998). Dynamics and risk factors in partner violence. In J. L. Jasinski & L. M. Williams (Eds.), Partner violence: A comprehensive review of 20 years of research (pp. 1–43). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Koss, M. P., Gidycz, C. A., & Wisniewski, N. (1987). The scope of rape: Incidence and prevalence of sexual aggression and victimization in a national sample of higher education students. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55(2), 162–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Koss, M. P., Goodman, L. A., Browne, A., Fitzgerald, L. F., Keita, G. P., & Russo, N. F. (1994). No safe haven: Male violence against women at home, at work, and in the community. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Koss, M. P., & Harvey, M. R. (1991). The rape victim: Clinical and community interventions (2nd ed.). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Labelle, B. (1980). Snuff: The ultimate in woman hating. In L. Lederer (Ed.), Take back the night:Women on pornography (pp. 272–276). New York: Morrow.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lee, R. (1984). The Dobe !Kung. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Louis, M. (1994). Sexual harassment at work in France: What stakes for feminists? In M. Davies (Ed.), Women and violence: Realities and responses worldwide (pp. 85–97). London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Maccoby, E. E., & Jacklin, C. N. (1974). The psychology of sex differences. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    MacCormack, C., & Strathern, M. (Eds.), (1980). Nature, culture and gender. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Mahoney, P., & Williams, L. M. (1998). Sexual assault in marriage: Prevalence, consequences, and treatment of wife rape. In J. L. Jasinski & L. M. Williams (Eds.), Partner violence: A comprehensive review of 20 years of research (pp. 113–162). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Marshall, L. (1976). The !Kung of Nyae Nyae. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Meigs, A., & Barlow, K. (2002). Beyond the taboo: Imagining incest. American Anthropologist, 104(1), 38–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Messner, M. A. (1990). Boyhood, organized sports, and the construction of masculinities. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 18(4), 416–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Moghadam,V. M. (1992). Revolution, Islam and women: Sexual politics in Iran and Afghanistan. In A. Parker, M. Russo, D. Sommer, & P. Yaeger (Eds.), Nationalisms and sexualities (pp. 424–446). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Moir, A., & Jessell D. (1991). Brain sex: The real difference between men and women. Dell, New York: Carol Publishing Group.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Molisa, G. M. (1989). Black Stone II. Port Vila, Vanuatu. Block Stone Publications and Vanuato University of Pacific Centre.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Murphy, Y., & Murphy, R. F. (1974). Women of the forest. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Nanda, S. (2000). Gender diversity: Cross-cultural variations. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Ortner, S. B. (1974). Is female to male as nature is to culture? In M. Rosaldo & L. Lamphere (Eds.), Women, culture, and society (pp. 67–87). Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Otterbein, K. F. (1979). A cross-cultural study of rape. Aggressive Behavior, 5, 425–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Paglia, C. (1992). Sex, art, and American culture. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Parker, A., Russo, M., Sommer, D., & Yeager, P. (Eds.), (1992). Nationalisms and sexualities. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Perpinan, M. S., Sr. (1994). Militarism and the sex industry in the Philippines. In M. Davies (Ed.), Women and violence: Realities and responses worldwide (pp. 149–152). London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Radford, J., & Russell, D. E. H. (Eds.), (1992). Femicide: The politics of woman killing. New York: Twayne.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Rosi, P., & Zimmer-Tamakoshi, L. (1993). Love and marriage among the educated elite in Port Moresby. In R. Marksbury (Ed.), The business of marriage: Transformations in Oceanic matrimony (pp. 175–204). Pittsburgh, PA: The University of Pittsburgh Press.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Russell, D. E. H. (1998). Dangerous relationships: Pornography, misogyny, and rape. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Russell, D. E. H., & Bolen, R. M. (2000). The epidemic of rape and child sexual abuse in the United States. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Sanday, P. R. (1990a). Androcentric and matrifocal gender representations in Minangkabau ideology. In P. R. Sanday & R. G. Goodenough (Eds.), Beyond the second sex. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Sanday, P. R. (1990b). Fraternity gang rape: Sex, brotherhood, and privilege on campus. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Searles, P., & Berger, R. J. (1987). The current status of rape reform legislation: An examination of state statutes. Women’s Rights Law Reporter, 10(1), 25–43.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Sedlak, A. J., & Broadhurst, D. D. (1996). Third national incidence study of child abuse and neglect: Final report. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Siklova, J., & Hradilkova, J. (1994). Women and violence in postcommunist Czechoslovakia. In M. Davies (Ed.), Women and violence: Realities and responses worldwide (pp. 111–117). London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Sipolo, J. (1981). Civilized girl. Suva, Fiji: Mana.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Small, M. F. (1993). Female choices: Sexual behavior of female primates. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Smuts, B. B. (1992). Male aggression against women: An evolutionary perspective. Human Nature, 3(1), 1–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Tiger, L. (1969). Men in groups. New York: Vintage.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Toft, S. (1985). Marital violence in Port Moresby: Two urban case studies. In S. Toft (Ed.), Domestic violence in Papua New Guinea (Monograph No. 3, pp. 14–31). Port Moresby: Papua New Guinea Law Reform Commission.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Toft, S. (1986a). Domestic violence in urban Papua New Guinea (Occasional Paper No. 19). Port Moresby: Papua New Guinea Law Reform Commission.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Toft, S. (1986b). Marriage in Papua New Guinea (Monograph No. 4). Port Moresby: Papua New Guinea Law Reform Commission.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Toft, S., & Bonnell, S. (Eds.). (1985). Marriage and domestic violence in rural Papua New Guinea (Occasional Paper No. 18). Port Moresby: Papua New Guinea Law Reform Commission.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    To Liman, M. (1979, October 3). Bia botol longlong. Ondobondo Poster Poem.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Turnbull, C. M. (1961). The forest people: A study of the Pygmies of the Congo. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Weiner, A. B. (1976). Women of value, men of renown: New perspectives in Trobriand exchange. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Weitz, R. (1984). What price independence? Social reactions to lesbians, spinsters, widows, and nuns. In J. Freeman (Ed.), Women: A feminist perspective (3rd ed., pp. 454–464). Palo Alto, CA: Mayfield.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    West, C. M. (1998a). Leaving a second closet: Outing partner violence in same-sex couples. In J. L. Jasinski & L. M. Williams (Eds.), Partner violence: A comprehensive review of 20 years of research (pp. 163–183). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    West, C. M. (1998b). Lifting the “political gag order”: Breaking the silence around partner violence in ethnic minority families. In J. L. Jasinski & L. M. Williams (Eds.), Partner violence: A comprehensive review of 20 years of research (pp. 184–209). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Whiting, J. W. M., & Whiting, B. B. (1975). Children of six cultures: A psycho-cultural analysis. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Wyatt, G. E. (1985). The sexual abuse of Afro-American and White-American women in childhood. Child Abuse and Neglect, 9, 507–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Zimmer, L. J. (1990). Sexual exploitation and male dominance in Papua New Guinea. Human Sexuality [Special issue]. Point, 14, 250–267.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Zimmer-Tamakoshi, L. (1993). Nationalism and sexuality in Papua New Guinea. Pacific Studies, 16(4), 61–97.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Zimmer-Tamakoshi, L. (1995). Passion, poetry and cultural politics in the South Pacific. In R. Feinberg & L. Zimmer-Tamakoshi (Eds.), Politics of culture in the Pacific islands [Special issue]. Ethnology, 34(2+3), 113–128.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Zimmer-Tamakoshi, L. (2001). “Wild pigs and dog men”: Rape and domestic violence as women’s issues in Papua New Guinea. In C. B. Brettell & C. F. Sargent (Eds.), Gender in crosscultural perspective (pp. 565–580). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laura Zimmer-Tamakoshi

There are no affiliations available